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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Administrative data

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Cinnamon bark oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS). With 90.16% of the constituents of Cinnamon bark oil known, this NCS can be considered as a well defined NCS. Cinnamon bark oil consists for 30 to 75% of cinnamic aldehyde and a variety of structurally related aldehydes and alcohols. If the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
other company data
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2010
Reference Type:
other: "MITI database"
Title:
Biodegradation and Bioconcentration of the Existing Chemical Substances under the Chemical Substances Control Law
Author:
National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan
Year:
2010
Bibliographic source:
Chemical Risk Information Platform (CHRIP)
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Robust Summaries for Cinnamyl Derivatives, FFHPVC Aromatic Consortium Registration Number, 201 – 15843B
Author:
OPPT
Year:
2005
Bibliographic source:
http://www.epa.gov/hpv/pubs/summaries/cinna/c12912rr.pdf
Reference Type:
other: Estimation program
Title:
UM-BBD Pathway Prediction System
Author:
University of Minnesota
Year:
2013
Bibliographic source:
http://umbbd.ethz.ch/predict/
Reference Type:
other: estimation method
Title:
BIOWIN v4.10
Author:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Year:
2008
Bibliographic source:
US EPA. [2008]. Estimation Programs Interface Suite™ for Microsoft® Windows, v 4.00. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other:
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Assessment of the Ready biodegradability of the known constituents; addition of the percentage of readily biodegradable constituents in the mixture gives the fraction of ready biodegradable substances.
If this fraction exceeds 75%, the NCS is classified as 'readily biodegradable'.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, ext.
EC Number:
283-479-0
EC Name:
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, ext.
Cas Number:
84649-98-9
IUPAC Name:
84649-98-9
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Cinnamon bark Oil
IUPAC Name:
Cinnamon bark Oil

Results and discussion

Details on results:
Details for all constituents are summarised in window "Any other information on results" and in attached document

Any other information on results incl. tables

Assessment of the biodegradability of Cinnamon bark oil:

Each of the identified constituents, totalling 90.16% of the composition, is readily biodegradable or expected to be readily biodegradable, see data in table below.

Constituent

Results of biodegradation assessment

Cinnamic aldehyde trans

CAS# 14371-10-9

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD 301B - CO2 evolution (Sealed vessel) 

Cinnamyl acetate

CAS# 103-54-8

 

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE according to the UM-BBD Pathway and BIOWIN predictions

(E)-Cinnamic alcohol

CAS# 104-54-1

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

 - OECD 301C (MITI, 30 mg sludge/L, 100 mg test substance/L), 14d

2'-methoxycinnamaldehyde

CAS# 1504-74-1

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE according to the UM-BBD Pathway and BIOWIN predictions

Eugenol

CAS# 97-53-0

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

EU-C.4-E (Closed Bottle Test)

OECD 301B (Sealed CO2)

OECD 301F

Terpineol alpha & beta & gamma

CAS# 8000-41-7

(a-terpineol): READILY BIODEGRADABLE:

 - OECD 310 Carbon Dioxide Headspace test, CO2 production 

Linalool

CAS# 78-70-6

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD 301F

Benzyl benzoate

CAS# 120-51-4

 

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

-MITI (I) / OECD 301C 

- OECD 301B 

Caryophyllene

CAS# 87-44-5

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD301F

Para-Cymene

C10H14

CAS#99-87-6

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD301F

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C (improved type for a volatile substance)

Safrole

CAS#94-59-7

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

by analogy to Eugenol (see above) and Heliotropin (see next row)

Heliotropin

CAS 120-57-0

Structural analogue for Safrole

READILY BIODEGRADABLE

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301B (sealed CO2)

Cineole

(1,8)

CAS#470-82-6

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

 - OECD 301B, sealed CO2

- OECD 301F

- OECD 301D, Closed bottle

 

p-mentha-1,5-diene

CAS# 99-83-2

Expected to be READILY BIODEGRADABLE

Biodegradable based on structural analogues in this monocyclic terpenes group, e.g. Gamma-Terpinene (see next row)

 

They share the same carbon skeleton; the only difference is the position of the double bonds. This is not expected to affect the sensitivity to biodegradation in a significant way

Gamma-Terpinene

C10H16

CAS# 90-85-4

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- MITI (I) / OECD 301C, improved for volatile substance

Coumarin

CAS# 91-64-5

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD 301C (MITI 1; 30 ppm sludge/L, 100 ppm test substance/L), 2 wk

Benzaldehyde

CAS# 100-52-7

 

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- OECD 301C (MITI 1)

Styrene

CAS# 100-42-5

READILY BIODEGRADABLE in:

- ISO DIS 9408 (~OECD 301F Manometric Respirometry, 91 mg test substance/L), 10d

- OECD 301D (Closed Bottle, 3, 7 and 10 mg test substance/L), 5d

Fraction of NCS readily biodegradable

Including likely to be readily constituents: 90.16%

85.5% of the composition is readily biodegradable according to experimental data. The remaining 4.7% is readily biodegradable by analogy to closely related structures

The complete assessment is added attached to this study record.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
Cinnamon bark oil is considered as readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:
Cinnamon bark oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) for which > 90% of the constituents is identified. In the typical Cinnamon bark oil, the main constituent is Cinnamic aldehyde - trans (60%, range 30 -75%). As no valid empirical results from a test for the ready biodegradation of Cinnamon bark oil are available, the assessment is based on its constituents. The assumption is that if the constituents of the NCS are readily biodegradable, the NCS itself is readily biodegradable as well. For all known constituents typically comprising 85.5% of the composition, the available data obtained in tests on the ready biodegradability show that the constituents are readily biodegradable. For some constituents (4.7% of the NCS) the ready biodegradability is decided based on the ready biodegradability of structurally related substances.

Thus 90.16% of the composition of this NCS is in the category of readily biodegradable substances and therefore Cinnamon bark oil is considered as readily biodegradable.