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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Data is from peer reviewed journal
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The acute toxicity of industrial organic chemicals including test chemical to the fathead minnow was determined for 96 hrs.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No data available
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead Minnow
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 28- to 34-day-old (Juvenile(s))
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.12 g
- Feeding during test: The fish were not fed 24 h before nor during the toxicity tests. Mortalities were recorded daily and estimated median lethal concentrations
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
44.6 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
25 deg.C
pH:
7.6
Dissolved oxygen:
>= 80 mg/L
Salinity:
ALKALINITY: 44.0 mg/L CaCO3
Conductivity:
No data available
Details on test conditions:
Tests were conducted in diluters with continuous-flow water delivery and toxicant introduction systems similar in principle to those described by Benoit et al.(1982) and Anderson and Weber (1975). Each of two diluters for binary tests contained a control, and four treatment levels in duplicate at each of seven mixture ratios were distributed between the diluters. This gave a total of 28 treatments in duplicate plus two controls. The seven ratios used to define the binary isobole diagrams were 5:0, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 0:5. The diluter for equitoxic multiple chemical tests had one control and five single treatment levels. The toxicant concentrations followed a geometric series (0.8 dilution factor) for all tests. The dilution water was fed from a main head tank to a similar tank over each diluter. The water in the head tanks was vigorously aerated to remove excess dissolved gases. The toxicant solutions for binary tests were delivered by FMI metering pumps (Fluid Metering,
Inc., Oyster Bay, NY) from separate stock bottles or chemical 'saturators'(Gingerich et al., 1979) into a chamber which was designed to dilute each stock solution independently before combining them in mixtures. The toxicant concentrations in each test treatment were thus controlled separately.

Test chambers were illuminated with wide spectrum fluorescent bulbs (Durotest 'Vitalite') for 16 h daily. This included a 30-rain gradual brightening and dimming period with incandescent light to simulate dawn and dusk (Drummond and Dawson, 1970). The light intensity at the test water surface ranged from 22 to 38 lumens/sq ft.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
45.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
95% confidence intervals were computed by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method (Hamilton et al., 1977) or a log-probit method (Stephan, 1977).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
In acute fish toxicity the lethal concentration in 96 hrs exposure period was observed to be 45.9 mg/l with 95% confidence limit (43.5-48.4)
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of industrial organic chemicals including test chemical to the fathead minnow was determined for 96 hrs. Concentrations were determined by analytical methods utilizing direct aqueous injection (Knuth and Hoglund, 1984) and solvent extraction gas chromatographic (GC) techniques, and high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. GC analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard model 5730A gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors.

Tests were conducted in diluters with continuous-flow water delivery and toxicant introduction systems similar in principle to those described by Benoit et al.(1982) and Anderson and Weber (1975). Each of two diluters for binary tests contained a control, and four treatment levels in duplicate at each of seven mixture ratios were distributed between the diluters. This gave a total of 28 treatments in duplicate plus two controls. The seven ratios used to define the binary isobole diagrams were 5:0, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 0:5. The diluter for equitoxic multiple chemical tests had one control and five single treatment levels. The toxicant concentrations followed a geometric series (0.8 dilution factor) for all tests. The dilution water was fed from a main head tank to a similar tank over each diluter. The water in the head tanks was vigorously aerated to remove excess dissolved gases. The toxicant solutions for binary tests were delivered by FMI metering pumps (Fluid Metering, Inc., Oyster Bay, NY) from separate stock bottles or chemical 'saturators'(Gingerich et al., 1979) into a chamber which was designed to dilute each stock solution independently before combining them in mixtures. The toxicant concentrations in each test treatment were thus controlled separately. Test chambers were illuminated with wide spectrum fluorescent bulbs (Durotest 'Vitalite') for 16 h daily. This included a 30-rain gradual brightening and dimming period with incandescent light to simulate dawn and dusk (Drummond and Dawson, 1970). The light intensity at the test water surface ranged from 22 to 38 lumens/sq ft. 95% confidence intervals were computed by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method (Hamilton et al., 1977) or a log-probit method (Stephan, 1977). From experimental result the the lethal concentration in 96 hrs exposure period was observed to be 45.9 mg/l with 95% confidence limit (43.5-48.4).Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance is toxic to fish and thus classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria.

Description of key information

Short term toxicity to fish :

The acute toxicity of industrial organic chemicals including test chemical to the fathead minnow was determined for 96 hrs.

Concentrations were determined by analytical methods utilizing direct aqueous injection (Knuth and Hoglund, 1984) and solvent extraction gas chromatographic (GC) techniques, and high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. GC analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard model 5730A gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors.

Tests were conducted in diluters with continuous-flow water delivery and toxicant introduction systems similar in principle to those described by Benoit et al.(1982) and Anderson and Weber (1975). Each of two diluters for binary tests contained a control, and four treatment levels in duplicate at each of seven mixture ratios were distributed between the diluters. This gave a total of 28 treatments in duplicate plus two controls. The seven ratios used to define the binary isobole diagrams were 5:0, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 0:5. The diluter for equitoxic multiple chemical tests had one control and five single treatment levels. The toxicant concentrations followed a geometric series (0.8 dilution factor) for all tests. The dilution water was fed from a main head tank to a similar tank over each diluter. The water in the head tanks was vigorously aerated to remove excess dissolved gases. The toxicant solutions for binary tests were delivered by FMI metering pumps (Fluid Metering,

Inc., Oyster Bay, NY) from separate stock bottles or chemical 'saturators'(Gingerich et al., 1979) into a chamber which was designed to dilute each stock solution independently before combining them in mixtures. The toxicant concentrations in each test treatment were thus controlled separately.

Test chambers were illuminated with wide spectrum fluorescent bulbs (Durotest 'Vitalite') for 16 h daily. This included a 30-rain gradual brightening and dimming period with incandescent light to simulate dawn and dusk (Drummond and Dawson, 1970). The light intensity at the test water surface ranged from 22 to 38 lumens/sq ft.

95% confidence intervals were computed by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method (Hamilton et al., 1977) or a log-probit method (Stephan, 1977).

From experimental result the the lethal concentration in 96 hrs exposure period was observed to be 45.9 mg/l with 95% confidence limit (43.5-48.4).Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance 2-Octanone is toxic to fisn and thus classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
45.9 mg/L

Additional information

Short term toxicity to fish :

Five results including experimental studies and modelling database were reviewed for short term fish toxicity, from data having Klimish rating 2 and 4 considering key and supporting, which is summarised as followed:

First experimental study (Aquatic Toxicology, 6 (1985) 307-322) suggest the acute toxicity of industrial organic chemicals including test chemical to the fathead minnow was determined for 96 hrs. Concentrations were determined by analytical methods utilizing direct aqueous injection (Knuth and Hoglund, 1984) and solvent extraction gas chromatographic (GC) techniques, and high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. GC analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard model 5730A gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization and electron capture detectors.Tests were conducted in diluters with continuous-flow water delivery and toxicant introduction systems similar in principle to those described by Benoit et al.(1982) and Anderson and Weber (1975). Each of two diluters for binary tests contained a control, and four treatment levels in duplicate at each of seven mixture ratios were distributed between the diluters. This gave a total of 28 treatments in duplicate plus two controls. The seven ratios used to define the binary isobole diagrams were 5:0, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 0:5. The diluter for equitoxic multiple chemical tests had one control and five single treatment levels. The toxicant concentrations followed a geometric series (0.8 dilution factor) for all tests. The dilution water was fed from a main head tank to a similar tank over each diluter. The water in the head tanks was vigorously aerated to remove excess dissolved gases. The toxicant solutions for binary tests were delivered by FMI metering pumps (Fluid Metering, Inc., Oyster Bay, NY) from separate stock bottles or chemical 'saturators'(Gingerich et al., 1979) into a chamber which was designed to dilute each stock solution independently before combining them in mixtures. The toxicant concentrations in each test treatment were thus controlled separately. Test chambers were illuminated with wide spectrum fluorescent bulbs (Durotest 'Vitalite') for 16 h daily. This included a 30-rain gradual brightening and dimming period with incandescent light to simulate dawn and dusk (Drummond and Dawson, 1970). The light intensity at the test water surface ranged from 22 to 38 lumens/sq ft. 95% confidence intervals were computed by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method (Hamilton et al., 1977) or a log-probit method (Stephan, 1977).From experimental result the the lethal concentration in 96 hrs exposure period was observed to be 45.9 mg/l with 95% confidence limit (43.5-48.4).Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance is toxic to fish and thus classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria.

Supporting study from peer reviewed journal (Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 948–967, 1997)indicate Short term toxicity study to Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) was carried out for 96 hrs. The objective of this study was to develop procedures that relate modes of acute toxic action in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to chemical structures and properties. An empirically derived database for diverse chemical structures of acute toxicity and corresponding modes of toxic action was developed through joint toxic action studies, the establishment of toxicodynamic profiles, and behavioral and dose–response interpretation of 96-h LC50 tests. Chemicals in the fathead minnow database were evaluated through analyses of dose–response relationships and behavioral responses associated with 96-h LC50 bioassays. Based on the amount of available information for a test compound, a level of confidence was assigned to a mode of action determination.28 - 30 d old juveline test organisms were used for the study. The test was performed under flowthrough condition with temp. of 25 ± 1°C. Test was conducted using Lake Superior water at 25±1°C.Aqueous toxicant concentrations were measured in tests with quality assurance criteria requiring 80% agreement between duplicate samples and 90 to 110% spike recovery. Flow-through exposures were conducted using cycling proportional, modified Benoit, or electronic diluters. Tests conducted which were conducted on the Benoit and electronic diluters did not have replicate tank exposures.Median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated using the Trimmed Spearman–Karber Method, with 95% confidence intervals being calculated when possible. The change of LC50 values over time (LC50 ratio) and the ratio of measured 96-h LC50 values to those predicted from a baseline narcosis (narcosis I) QSAR were used as supportive data for assessing potential modes of action. Each mode of action classification was assigned a level of confidence based on the type of data used when making the assessment; confidence levels were high (Level A using FATS and joint toxic action data), moderate (Level B using behavior syndrome, LC50 ratios, Te values, and structural similarity to Level A compounds), and low (Level C using behavioural comments, concentration/response slope, and structural similarity within a chemical class). Thus, the mode of action for the test chemical was Narcosis I: Level A confidence. Based on mortality, the 96 hr LC50 value for Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) was found to be 36 mg/l.

Another peer reviewed study for target suggests the acute toxicity test has been performed on fish with exposure duration of 96 hrs. The animals were exposed by test chemical  with dose range to 35 to 37 mg/L.Under the test condition LC50 value was found to be 36 mg/L when exposed to fish for 96 hrs by test chemical 2-octanone.Thus based on the lethal concentration it is concluded that the test substance 2-octanone is toxic to fish and thus classified in aquatic chronic 3 as per the CLP criteria.( Center for Lake Superior Environmental ,University of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI:414 p.)

And study report GSBL – Joint Substance Data Pool of the German Federal Government and the German Federal States indicate based on mortality, the 96 hrs LC50 value for Pimephales promelas was found to be > 36 mg/l for test chemical .

Overall all available studies give assistance as the test substance showed the adverse effects on the basis of mortality effects on aquatic fish(Pimephales promelas) thus considering the test substance for the aquatic classification in Chronic Category 3 as per the CLP criteria.