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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Environmental fate and pathways

 

Environmental exposure

 

Exposure could arise in association with production, formulation and industrial use of the substance. There would also be exposure from consumer uses.

The main uses of alcohols are as manufacturing intermediates for consumer products. Discharge of these products is expected to be primarily to water, through disposal to drain. 

 

Occupational Exposure: As a rule aliphatic alcohols are manufactured and processed in established chemical complexes in closed installations; these are usually operated at high temperature and pressure. At these sites standard personal protective equipment is routinely applied to prevent direct skin and eye contact. Generally, aliphatic alcohols are of a low volatility and as a rule engineering controls are available preventing the need for respiratory protection. For non-routine operations involving a break in enclosed systems a higher level of protection is applied. Operations with a potential for significant exposure require a permit to work system and a case-by-case assessment is made for appropriate protective measures. Exposure through the use of products in industry and commerce is mitigated by applying measures aimed to prevent direct skin and eye contact by following the recommendations in the material safety data sheet (MSDS).

 

Consumer Exposure: Aliphatic alcohols are formulated in consumer laundry, cleaning and personal care products. Product labels reflect the hazard potential of the chemical ingredients in these products and include first aid instructions in case of non-intentional exposure.

 

Environmental fate

 

All of the alcohols would be expected to be stable in respect of abiotic degradation in water. Photo-oxidation in aqueous systems will not be significant.

Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. This substance has no hydrolysable structural features and would be expected to be stable in respect of hydrolysis. Alcohols have no hydrolysable groups and are therefore not susceptible to hydrolysis (Lyman, Reehl and Rosenblatt, 1990). Oxidation would not be expected under normal environmental conditions.

Reference: Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods.,: Amer Chem Soc p. 7-4, 7-5, 8-12 (1990)]

 

 

Stability

 

Phototransformation in air

  

Using the AOPWIN QSAR model, the photochemical degradation rate of Alcohols, C12-14 in the atmosphere is 18.1944 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec, with a resultant predicted half live of 7.054 Hrs ( 0.588 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3))

 

OVERALL OH Rate Constant = 18.1944 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec

HALF-LIFE = 0.588 Days (12-hr day; 1.5E6 OH/cm3)

HALF-LIFE = 7.054 Hrs

 

 

Alcohols, C12-14 has low vapor pressure (0.245 Pa ) indicating significant amounts of Alcohols, C12-14 are unlikely to be present in the atmosphere for photodegradation. The estimated half-life is about 7.054 Hrs (OH rate = 18.1944 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec) with the AOPWIN (US EPA, 2011).

 

If released to air, a vapor pressure of 0.00181 mm Hg  at 25 deg C (0.00181 mm Hg is equivalent to vapour pressure of 0.245 Pa) indicates significant amounts of Alcohols, C12-14 are unlikely to be present in the atmosphere for photodegradation and therefore Alcohols, C12-14 is not expected to be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight.

 

   

Phototransformation in water

 

It is not applicable for a compound wich is insoluble or slightly soluble

 

Phototransformation in soil

If released to soil, Alcohols, C12-14 is expected to have low mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 2245 . Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process. Therefore testing for Phototransformation in soils does not need to be performed.

 

Hydrolysis

  According to “ANNEX VIII- STANDARD INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTANCES MANUFACTURED OR IMPORTED IN QUANTITIES OF 10 TONNES OR MORE , study for Hydrolysis as a function of pH does not need to be conducted if: -the substance is ready biodegradable.

As Alcohols, C12-14 is ready biodegradable a Hydrolysis study does not need to be conducted.

Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. This substance has no hydrolysable structural features and would be expected to be stable in respect of hydrolysis.

Alcohols have no hydrolysable groups and are therefore not susceptible to hydrolysis (Lyman, Reehl and Rosenblatt, 1990).

Oxidation would not be expected under normal environmental conditions.

Reference: Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods.,: Amer Chem Soc p. 7-4, 7-5, 8-12 (1990)]

Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which molecules of water (H2O) are split into hydrogen cations (H+, conventionally referred to as protons) and hydroxide anions (OH−) in the process of a chemical mechanism). This substance, which contains primarily ether linkages, is not anticipated to hydrolyze readily in water at neutral pHs.

Biodegradation

Biodegradation in water:screening tests

 

Data of following studies are demonstrating rapid biodegradationAlcohols, C12-14 under aerobic conditions.

 

 Henkel KGaA. , 1997 conducted BOD-test for Insoluble Substances (BODIS); ISO 10708 for Biodegradation of Alcohols, C12-14.

The test method used is based on OECD test method 301D and the RDA-Blok-Test. Mineral medium was inoculated with activated sludge and stabilized for one week at 18-22 C with continuous stirring. After stabilisation, 200 ml of test medium was filled into 300 ml bottles, aerated until O2 saturation was reached and spiked with test substance by directly weighing into the test vessels.

Degradation was 79 - 97 % after 28 day(s), the substance is considered to be readily biodegradable

 

The BIOWIN QSAR predicts that the substance Alcohols, C12-14 will be readily biodegradable.

 

Richterich , 1993 conducted OECD 301D test for Biodegradation of Alcohols, C12 (1-Dodecanol). Degradation was 79 % after 28 day(s) , the substance is considered to be readily biodegradable. Dodecan-1-ol (C12) is supporting substance for Alcohols, C12-C14 and the main component. The test substance (2 mg/l) attained >60% degradation during the 14 day window.

 

Henkel KGaA. , 1992 conducted OECD test method 301D and BOD-test for Insoluble Substances (BODIS); ISO 10708 for Biodegradation of Dodecan-1-ol (C12. Degradation was 100 % after 28 day(s) , the substance is considered to be readily biodegradable.

The substance degraded >60% in the 10 day window. .Dodecan-1-ol (C12) is supporting substance for Alcohols, C12-C14 and the main component.

Morris, P.A., Filler, P.A., and Nielsen, A.M. (1991) conducted OECD 301B test and Degradationwas 71 % after 28 day(s) , the substance is considered to be readily biodegradable. The substance degraded >60% in the 14 day window. .Dodecan-1-ol (C12) is supporting substance for Alcohols,C12-C14 and the main component. The reference substance Sodium acetate degraded by 78% after 28 days.

 

   

Table     Summary of Biodegradation in water:screening tests

 

Type/ Method

Test material

Degradation

Duration

References

 

Aerobic/

OECD 301D/(BODIS)

Alcohols, C12-14

79-97% in 28 days at 100 mg/L

28 days

Henkel KGaA. , 1997

 

Aerobic/

OECD 301D

Alcohols, C12 (1-Dodecanol).

 

79%

 

28 days

 

Richterich , 1993

 

Aerobic/

OECD 301D/(BODIS

Alcohols, C12 (1-Dodecanol).

 

100 %

28 days

Henkel KGaA. , 1992

 

Aerobic/

OECD 301D

Alcohols, C12 (1-Dodecanol).

 

71 %

28 days

Morris, P.A., Filler, P.A., and Nielsen, A.M. (1991)

 

 

 

 

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

 

According to “ANNEX IX- STANDARD INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTANCES MANUFACTURED OR IMPORTED IN QUANTITIES OF 100 TONNES OR MORE”, a simulation testing on ultimate degradation in surface water, the study does not need to be performed if the substance is ready biodegradable. As Alcohols, C12-14 is ready biodegradable a ready biodegradability study does not need to be conducted.

Therefore testing for Biodegradation in water does not need to be performed 

Biodegradation in soil

 

Expert Judgement

 If released to soil, Alcohols, C12-14 is expected to have very high mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 2245. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process. Therefore testing for Biodegradation in water does not need to be performed 

   

Bioaccumulation

 

Bioaccumulation is considered to be low for Alcohols, C12-14 which is from the category of Long Chain aliphatic Alcohols, which are rapidly metabolised in higher organisms.

The estimated Log BCF of Alcohols, C12-14 is 1.677 (BCF = 47.59 L/kg wet-wt).This substance has a limited potential to bioaccumulate (based on log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.13, and predicted bioconcentration factors, log BCF = 1.677 (EPIWIN/BCF Program).

A 96 hours, hexadecan-1-ol bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the Brachydanio rerio (new name: Danio rerio) species ranged from 500 to 1000 (Unilever,1996).

These experimental and estimated BCF values suggest that Alcohols, C12-14 has a low potential for bioaccumulation.

Chain lengths C11 and above have log Kow >4.5 and so could be considered to be potentially bioaccumulative.

Two evidences result in the conclusion that Alcohols, C12-14 is not expected to be B/vB:

1. Due to rapid degradation combined with evidence of rapid metabolism in mammalian and fish studies, it is unlikely that bioaccumulation of Alcohols, C12-14 would be demonstrated in studies.

2. The conduct of guideline-standard studies of bioaccumulation in fish would be confounded by the technical difficulties of maintaining the test alcohol in solution according to results of other long-term studies with invertebrates. In these studies, severe difficulties were encountered in conducting the study as biodegradation of the substance in the test system was almost complete within the 24 h test media renewal period.

Therefore, Alcohols, C12-14 is not considered to be bioaccumulative.

 

According to “ANNEX IX- STANDARD INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTANCES MANUFACTURED OR IMPORTED IN QUANTITIES OF 100 TONNES OR MORE , a bioaccumulation study need not be conducted if:

— the substance has a low potential for bioaccumulation (for instance a log Kow ≤ 3) and/or a low potential to cross biological membranes, or

— direct and indirect exposure of the aquatic compartment is unlikely.

The estimated Log BCF of Alcohols, C12-14 is 1.677 (BCF = 47.59 L/kg wet-wt)

This substance has a limited potential to bioaccumulate (based on log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.13, and predicted bioconcentration factors, log BCF = 1.677 (EPIWIN/BCF Program).

The estimated BCF of 47.59 L/kg wet-wt was measured by calculation from EPI SuiteTM v4.1 Program.

These values would suggest very low bioaccumulation potential.

This is Exposure Assessment Tools and Models made from EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).

 

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCCCCCCCCO

CHEM  : Alcohols, C12-14

MOL FOR: C13 H28O

MOL WT : 193-203

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 1.68 (BCF = 47.6 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 1.11 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): 2.65 (BAF = 445 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): 5.13

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.13

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = 0.6598 log Kow - 0.333 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      Alkyl chains (8+ -CH2- groups) -1.374

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 1.677 (BCF = 47.59 L/kg wet-wt)

 

     

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

   

 According to “ANNEX IX- STANDARD INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTANCES MANUFACTURED OR IMPORTED IN QUANTITIES OF 100 TONNES OR MORE , a bioaccumulation study need not be conducted if:

— the substance has a low potential for bioaccumulation (for instance a log Kow ≤ 3) and/or a low potential to cross biological membranes, or

— direct and indirect exposure of the aquatic compartment is unlikely.

The estimated Log BCF of Alcohols, C12-14 is 1.677 (BCF = 47.59 L/kg wet-wt)

This substance has a limited potential to bioaccumulate (based on log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.13, and predicted bioconcentration factors, log BCF = 1.677 (EPIWIN/BCF Program).

The estimated BCF of 47.59 L/kg wet-wt was measured by calculation from EPI SuiteTM v4.1 Program.

These values would suggest very low bioaccumulation potential.

This is Exposure Assessment Tools and Models made from EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).

 

BCFBAF Program (v3.01) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCCCCCCCCO

CHEM  : Alcohols, C12-14

MOL FOR: C13 H28O

MOL WT : 193-203

--------------------------------- BCFBAF v3.01 --------------------------------

Summary Results:

 Log BCF (regression-based estimate): 1.68 (BCF = 47.6 L/kg wet-wt)

 Biotransformation Half-Life (days) : 1.11 (normalized to 10 g fish)

 Log BAF (Arnot-Gobas upper trophic): 2.65 (BAF = 445 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Log Kow (experimental): 5.13

Log Kow used by BCF estimates: 5.13

 

Equation Used to Make BCF estimate:

  Log BCF = 0.6598 log Kow - 0.333 + Correction

 

     Correction(s):                   Value

      Alkyl chains (8+ -CH2- groups) -1.374

 

  Estimated Log BCF = 1.677 (BCF = 47.59 L/kg wet-wt)

 

===========================================================

Whole Body Primary Biotransformation Rate Estimate for Fish:

===========================================================

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 TYPE | NUM | LOG BIOTRANSFORMATION FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION | COEFF | VALUE 

------+-----+--------------------------------------------+---------+---------

 Frag | 1 | Linear C4 terminal chain [CCC-CH3]      | 0.0341 | 0.0341

 Frag | 1 | Aliphatic alcohol [-OH]                 | -0.0616 | -0.0616

 Frag | 1 | Methyl [-CH3]                           | 0.2451 | 0.2451

 Frag | 11 | -CH2- [linear]                          | 0.0242 | 0.2661

 L Kow| * | Log Kow =  5.13 (experimental  )       | 0.3073 | 1.5767

 MolWt| * | Molecular Weight Parameter               |        | -0.4778

 Const| * | Equation Constant                        |        | -1.5371

============+============================================+=========+=========

  RESULT  |       LOG Bio Half-Life (days)           |        | 0.0455

  RESULT  |           Bio Half-Life (days)           |        |   1.11

  NOTE    | Bio Half-Life Normalized to 10 g fish at 15 deg C  |

============+============================================+=========+=========

 

Biotransformation Rate Constant:

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.6242 /day (10 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.351 /day (100 gram fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.1974 /day (1 kg fish)

 kM (Rate Constant): 0.111 /day (10 kg fish)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (including biotransformation rate estimates):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 2.645 (BCF = 441.5 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 2.649 (BAF = 445.4 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (mid trophic)  = 2.768 (BCF = 586.7 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (mid trophic)  = 2.810 (BAF = 645.1 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BCF (lower trophic) = 2.804 (BCF = 636.2 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (lower trophic) = 2.953 (BAF = 896.5 L/kg wet-wt)

 

Arnot-Gobas BCF & BAF Methods (assuming a biotransformation rate of zero):

  Estimated Log BCF (upper trophic) = 3.988 (BCF = 9717 L/kg wet-wt)

  Estimated Log BAF (upper trophic) = 5.245 (BAF = 1.758e+005 L/kg wet-wt)

 

 

 

Transport and distribution

Adsorption / desorption

 

The log of the adsorption coefficient (KOC) of Alcohols, C12-14 was estimated to be log KOC = 3.3512 which is equal to a KOC value of 2245 using the KOCWIN v2.00 QSAR method.

KOCWIN Program (v2.00) Results:

==============================

SMILES : CCCCCCCCCCCCO

CHEM  : Alcohols, C12-14

MOL FOR: C13 H28O

MOL WT : 193-203

--------------------------- KOCWIN v2.00 Results ---------------------------

Koc Estimate from MCI:

---------------------

First Order Molecular Connectivity Index ........... : 6.414

Non-Corrected Log Koc (0.5213 MCI + 0.60) .......... : 3.9435

Fragment Correction(s):

1 Aliphatic Alcohol (-C-OH) ........... : -1.3179

Corrected Log Koc .................................. : 2.6256

Estimated Koc: 422.3 L/kg <===========

Koc Estimate from Log Kow:

-------------------------

Log Kow (experimental DB) ......................... : 5.13

Non-Corrected Log Koc (0.55313 logKow + 0.9251) .... : 3.7627

Fragment Correction(s):

1 Aliphatic Alcohol (-C-OH) ........... : -0.4114

Corrected Log Koc .................................. : 3.3512

Estimated Koc: 2245 L/kg <===========

 

 

  Henry's Law constant

 

The estimated Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) measured by calculation from EPI SuiteTM v4.1, HENRYWIN v3.20 Program was 1.54E-004 atm-m3/mole (1.56E+001 Pa-m3/mole). This is Exposure Assessment Tools and Models made from EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).

    

Distribution modelling.

 

Alcohols, C12-14 has no affinity to be in air and sediment. The direct emissions to soil and surface water are significant, therefore Alcohols, C12-14 will be almost exclusively be found in soil and surface water.

Mackay fugacity modelling (level 3) indicates that, taking into account degradation and using inflow parameters which are consistent with the known production tonnage of this substance in, fugacity coefficient indicates that environmental concentrations in water are predicted to be 1.95e-010 (atm), in air (atm) 2.37e-011 and soil 6.36e-010 (atm) and sediment to be  1.5e-010 (atm).

These are negligible low levels. This can be considered a worse case prediction as it assumes all product is emitted with no emission control systems used.

 

 

   

Other distribution data

 

The results suggest for Alcohols, C12-14 that direct and indirect exposure from distribution in media is unlikely.

Based on low vapor pressure and low estimated log Pow, expected to partition to water and soil. Not expected to partition to air, sediments or biota.

 

Therefore testing for distribution in media does not need to be performed.

 

The estimated STP Fugacity Model and Volatilization From Water were measured by calculation from EPI SuiteTM v4.1 Program. This is Exposure Assessment Tools and Models made from EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) .

 

                                         

                           Volatilization From Water

                           =========================

 

Chemical Name: Alcohols, C12-14

 

Molecular Weight   : 186.34 g/mole

Water Solubility   : -----

Vapor Pressure     : -----

Henry's Law Constant: 2.22E-005 atm-m3/mole (Henry experimental database)

 

                                        RIVER            

                                          ---------        ---------

Water Depth    (meters):      1                1         

Wind Velocity   (m/sec):      5                0.5       

Current Velocity (m/sec):      1                0.05      

 

     HALF-LIFE (hours) :     37.39            522.4     

     HALF-LIFE (days ) :     1.558            21.77     

 

 STP Fugacity Model: Predicted Fate in a Wastewater Treatment Facility

======================================================================

  (using 10000 hr Bio P,A,S)

PROPERTIES OF: Alcohols, C12-14

-------------

Molecular weight (g/mol)                              186.34

Aqueous solubility (mg/l)                              0

Vapour pressure (Pa)                                     0

               (atm)                                              0

               (mm Hg)                                        0

Henry 's law constant (Atm-m3/mol)                    2.22E-005

Air-water partition coefficient                       0.000907914

Octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow)             134896

Log Kow                                               5.13

Biomass to water partition coefficient                26980.1

Temperature [deg C]                                   25

Biodeg rate constants (h^-1),half life in biomass (h) and in 2000 mg/L MLSS (h):

         -Primary tank       0.00     9818.05      10000.00

         -Aeration tank      0.00     9818.05      10000.00

         -Settling tank       0.00     9818.05      10000.00

 

                       STP Overall Chemical Mass Balance:

 ---------------------------------

                            g/h              mol/h         percent

 

Influent                   1.00E+001        5.4E-002       100.00

 

Primary sludge             5.06E+000        2.7E-002       50.57

Waste sludge               3.00E+000        1.6E-002       30.04

Primary volatilization     1.73E-003        9.3E-006        0.02

Settling volatilization    4.06E-003        2.2E-005        0.04

Aeration off gas           1.09E-002        5.9E-005        0.11

 

Primary biodegradation     1.51E-002        8.1E-005        0.15

Settling biodegradation    3.88E-003        2.1E-005        0.04

Aeration biodegradation    5.11E-002        2.7E-004        0.51

 

Final water effluent       1.85E+000        9.9E-003       18.52

 

Total removal              8.15E+000        4.4E-002       81.48

Total biodegradation       7.00E-002        3.8E-004        0.70