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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986-05-30 to 1986-06-13
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EPA, 1971; Miller et al., 1978. Reliability, deviations and validity criteria were evaluated against USEPA OPPTS 850.5400 Algal toxicity, Tiers I and II
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: 100 mL of a stock solution of 1.0 mg a.i./mL in AAP medium was prepared. The test material was dissolved by sonication of the stock solution for 18 minutes in a water bath ultrasonic cleaning machine. The test treatments were prepared by adding calculated amounts of stock solution to AAP medium in 250 mL volumetric flasks. The volume was then brought to 250 mL in each flask with AAP medium. The test concentrations were 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L.
- Controls: The control contained AAP medium (no test substance).
- Evidence of undissolved material: Particulate matter was found in the test solution.
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Green algae
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Selenastrum capricornutum used in this test came from laboratory stock cultures. The original culture was obtained from the National Eutrophication Research Program, USEPA, Corvallis, Oregon.
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): The inoculum of Selenastrum capricornutum came from a 7-day old stock culture which had previously been maintained in AAP medium for at least three transfers.
- Method of cultivation: Stock cultures were maintained in algal assay procedure medium (AAP medium) in Erlenmeyer flasks under constant illumination of 4304 ± 650 lumens/m2, and temperature of 24 ± 2 degree C. Flasks were continuously shaken at 100 ± 10 oscillations/minute. Transfers into fresh medium were conducted weekly according to Standard Operating Procedures.

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Culturing media and conditions (same as test or not): Same as test
- Any deformed or abnormal cells observed: Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
120 h
Post exposure observation period:
Post exposure observation period was 9 days.
Hardness:
Hardness was not available, calculated to be 2.64 mg/L as CaCO3 (on the basis of the composition of the AAP algal media).
Test temperature:
Test flasks were kept at a temperature of 24+/-2 degree C.
pH:
pH of the media was 7.5+/-1.
Dissolved oxygen:
Not available
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations, based on 73.4% active, were 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L. No measurements of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type: open
- Material: 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of each test concentration and control.
- Aeration: Not applicable
- Initial cells density: 20,000 cells/ml
- Control end cells density: 72 h: 1,492,667 cells/ml; 120 h: 4,567,000 cells/ml
- No. of organisms per vessel: 20, 000 cells/ml
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3

GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: Yes (AAP)

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: AAP medium was prepared by adding 1 mL of each macronutrient stock solution, and 1 mL of the micronutrient stock solution, to 900 mL of distilled deionized water. The volume was brought to 1 liter, and was immediately filtered through a 0.22 micron porosity membrane filter into a sterile container. Medium was stored in the dark at 4 degree C and brought to room temperature prior to use. Details of the algal test medium are in the study report.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: N/A
- Metals: N/A
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: 4.410 g/L CaCl2.2H2O/12.164 g/L MgCl2.6H2O (1.202 mg/L Ca/2.904 mg/L Mg) (composition of AAP media)
- Conductivity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature was recorded daily.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: yes
- Adjustment of pH: No (pH of highest test concentration was within the prescribed range of 6.5-8.5, and adjustment unnecessary.)
- Photoperiod: Continuous illumination
- Light intensity and quality: 4304+/-650 lumens/m2

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED
- Determination of cell concentrations: Hemacytometer (improved Neubauer, 0.1 mm deep) and microscope, or an electronic particle counter.
- Chlorophyll measurement: In vivo chlorophyll a relative fluorescence was measured with a Turner Model 111 Fluorometer equipped with a F4T.5 blue lamp and a R-136 red-sensitive photomultiplier tube.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Range-finding tests, conducted using test material concentrations from 0.01 to 1000 mg/L.
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes. Range finding test indicated that concentrations of 2 to 64 mg/L would be appropriate for definitive testing.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.38 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 0.857-2.23 mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC20
Effect conc.:
2.06 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.38-3.09 mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 3.38-5.82 mg/L
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control: yes
- Any stimulation of growth found in any treatment: No
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC values and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using SAS v 9.1.2.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
All criteria of US EPA OPPTS 850.5400 were met.
Conclusions:
In an algal growth inhibition test, the 72-h EC50 value of C14-15 alkyl sulfate to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was 4.43 mg/L. Results were based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient, and cell count.
Executive summary:

In a 72 h algae growth inhibition study, the cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to C14-15 alkyl sulfate at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L in accordance with the US EPA OPPTS 850.5400 guideline.

The 72 h EC10, EC20, and EC50 values were as follows:

Endpoint              mg/L (active ingredient, nominal test conc.)

EC10                     1.38

EC20                     2.06

EC50                     4.43

The results are based on cell count. There were no compound related phytotoxic effects.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for the US EPA OPPTS 850.5400 freshwater algae and cyanobacteria toxicity study.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1992-10-26 to 1992-10-29
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(2 replicates were taken instead of 3 replicates)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
Not applicable
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions of the test substance were prepared by dissolving by warming in a 50 degree C water-bath 516mg in 250ml (range finding test) or 55.3mg in 250ml algal medium (growth inhibition test). From these stock solutions, appropriate dilutions were prepared in algal medium to yield final concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 103 and 1032mg/L( range finding test) or 0, 0.62, 1.1, 2.0, 3.5, 6.2 and 11mg/L (growth inhibition test)
- Controls: Prepared using dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material: None
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Green alga
- Strain: SAG 86.81
- Source: Collection of Algal Cultures, Institute for Plant Physiology, University of Gottingen, Nicolausberger Weg 18, D-3400 Gottingen, Germany
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): Not available
- Method of cultivation: As detailed in OECD Guideline No. 201


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same condition
- Culturing media and conditions: Same as test
- Any deformed or abnormal cells observed: None
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
Not available. Test medium was according to OECD 201.
Test temperature:
Test temperature was maintained at 23+/-1 degree C
pH:
The pH of the medium at the start of the test was 8.9. The pH of the medium containing different test substance concentrations remained constant during the test (pH 8.6- 8.7). In the presence of algae the pH varied between 8.7 and 8.8 at the end of the test.
Dissolved oxygen:
Not available
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal laboratory exposure concentration based on 69.1% active were 0 (control), 0.62, 1.1, 2.0, 3.5, 6.2 and 11 mg/L.
No analytical measurement of test concentration.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: Open (Covered with silicon sponge caps)
- Material: 200ml conical flasks with 50ml test solution and 50ml algal suspension
- Aeration: Not available
- Initial cells density: 2.8x10(+4) cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 84.2x10(+4) cells/mL
- No. of organisms per vessel: 2.8x10(+4) cells/mL
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: Yes (OECD 201)


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: River water was obtained from the river Meuse (Meetstation Keizersveer, Verlengde Napoleonweg 23, Hank). Three polyethene carboys were filled with about 25L river water each and brought to the laboratory. The water was filtered through a set of Sartorius glass fiber prefilters and cellulose nitrate micropore filters with pore size of 3, 1.2, 0.45 and 0.2um and diameter of 142mm. Before and after filteration the water was stored at room temperature in the dark and aerated until use. The water was characterized for a number of properties. Before use the filtered river water was fortified with nutrients to obtained medium composition specified by the OECD guideline.
- Dissolved organic carbon (DOC): 5.7 mg/L
- Particulate matter: Not available
- PAH's and (chlorinated) hydrocarbons: Phenanthrene: 0.02 ug/L; Anthracene: < 0.01 ug/L; Fluoranthene: 0.01 ug/L; Pyrene: < 0.01 ug/L: Benzo(a)anthracene: <0.01 ug/L: Chrysene: <0.01 ug/L, Benzo(a)pyrene: < 0.005 ug/L; Benzo(b)fluoranthene: < 0.005; Benzo(k)fluoranthene: < 0.005 ug/L; Benzo(ghi)perylene: < 0.01 ug/L; Dibenzo(ah)anthracene: <0.01 ug/L; lndeno(123-cd) pyrene: <0.01 ug/L; Hexachlorobenzcne: <0.01 ug/L; Benzene: <0.1 ug/L; Ethylbenzene: <0.2 ug/L; Toluene: < 0.2 ug/L; o,m,p-xylene: <0.2 ug/L; Styrene: <0.2 ug/L; Propylbenzene: <0.2 ug/L; Isopropylbenzene: <0.2 ug/L; 1,2,4-Trirnethylbenzene: <0.2 ug/L; 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene: <0.2 ug/L; o.rn.p-dichlorobenzene: <0.01 ug/L; Naphtalene: <0.1 ug/L; 1,2-dichloroethene: <0.2 ug/L; Dichloromethane: < 1 ug/L; Trichloromethane: <0.5 ug/L; 1,2-Dichloroethane: < 0.2 ug/L; Trichloroethene: <0.2 ug/L; 1,1,1,-Trichloroethano: <0.2 ug/L; Tetrachloroethene: <0.2 ug/L; Bromochloromethane: <0.2 ug/L; Bromodichloromethane: <0.2 ug/L; 1-Chlorobuthane: <0.2 ug/L; Tribromoethane: <0.2 ug/L; Bromoform: <0.2 ug/L
- Metals: Na+: 50, K+: 7.9, Ca2+: 65, Mg2+: 8.4, Cd: <0.0005, Cr: <0.0030, Co: <0.0020, Cu: 0.0040, Pb: < 0.0020, Ni: <0.0030, Fe: <0.0200, cl: 86, SO42_: 50,, total P: 0.25, NO3-N: 5.0, NO2-N: 0.07, NH4+-N: 0.4mg/L
- Pesticides: PCB-28; PCB-52; PCB-101; PCB-118; PCB-138; PCB-153; PCB-180; α-HCH; β-HCH; γ -HCH; Heptachlor; Heptachloro epoxide; α-Endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-DDE; 2,4-DDT; 4,4-DDT; 2,4-DDD; 4,4-DDD; Aldrin; Endrin; Dieldrin; Telodrin: <0.01 ug/L
- Chlorine: not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: 65mg/L Ca2+ / 8.4mg/L Mg2+
- Conductivity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Test temperature was kept constant throughout the test, pH was measured at the start (medium without algae) and after 70h in selected cultures.


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: Yes
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: Not available
- Light intensity and quality: 60-120umol.s-1.m-2 radiated by the fluorescent lamps


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED:
- Determination of cell concentrations: electronic particle counter
- Chlorophyll measurement: Not available


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.8
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: 0, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10, 103 and 1032mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes, the range finding test revealed that inhibiting effects could be expected at concentrations higher than 1.0mg/L.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
10.42 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 9.2- 11.8mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.96 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 1.41- 2.7mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC20
Effect conc.:
3.48 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 2.77- 4.3mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.59 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 1.35- 1.86mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 3.8- 4.4mg/L
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC20
Effect conc.:
2.21 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 1.94- 2.5mg/L
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control (for algal test): Yes
- Observation of abnormalities (for algal test): None
- Unusual cell shape: None
- Colour differences: None
- Flocculation: None
- Adherence to test vessels: None
- Aggregation of algal cells: None
- Any stimulation of growth found in any treatment: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: None
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Endpoint values were derived using SAS v. 9.1.3 based on Bruce and Versteeg (1992).

Table C3: Mean values of the Cell counts (104particles.ml-1, corrected for background)
Time (h) Concentration of E-4583.01 (mg.l-1)
0 0 0.62 1.1 2.0 3.5 6.2 11
0.0 2.7 2.8 3 3.4 3.4 4 3.2 3.2
22.0 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.3 5.3 2.5 -- --
46.0 20.9 20.7 20.4 19.4 18.1 14.5 7.8 2.2
70.0 86.3 81.2 80.6 75.9 70.5 57.3 32.2 15.6
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
All the criteria of OECD 201 were met
Conclusions:
In an algae growth inhibition test, the 72 hour ErC50 of C45AS (C14-15 alkyl sulphate) to Scenedesmus subspicatus was 10.4mg/L, and the EbC50 was 4.14mg/L, based on nominal concentration of the test substance.
Executive summary:

In a 72h algae toxicity study, the cultures of Scenedesmus subspicatus were exposed to C45AS (C14/15 -alkyl sulfate) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.62, 1.1, 2.0, 3.5, 6.2 and 11mg/L under static conditions in accordance with OECD 201 Guideline. The 72h ErC50 was 10.4 mg a.i/L, and the EbC50 was 4.14 mg a.i/L based on nominal concentrations.

There were no compound related phytotoxic effects. This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the

guideline requirements for the OECD 201 freshwater algae and cyanobacteria toxicity study.

Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
07 Sep - 11 Sep 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: DIN 38412, part 9
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: stock solution of 10 g in Aqua bidest.
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: SAG 8681
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): Institute of Plant Physiology, University of Göttingen, Germany
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 3 days


Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
23-23.5 °C
pH:
no data
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
Salinity:
not relevant
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 300 mL Erlenmeyer flask
- Test volume: 100 mL
- Initial cells density: 10000 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 1,500,000 cells/mL (exponential growth)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes (Medium Algen n10.10)


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: continuous illumination
- Light intensity and quality: 2000 Lux


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell concentrations: Coulter counting chambers
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
0.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
7.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
38 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control (for algal test): yes
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Probit analysis
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
25 Feb - 28 Feb 1997
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.3 (Algal Inhibition test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 mg/L
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: 1.54 g/L test substance in VE water (stock solution)
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: CHODAT (86.81 SAG)
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): Institut für Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Berlin, Germany (originally); in-house culture
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 3 days
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
not relevant
Hardness:
no data
Test temperature:
23.5-23.8 °C
pH:
Begin: 7.8-8.0
End: 7.3-9.4
Dissolved oxygen:
no data
Salinity:
not relevant
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 mg/L
Measured: >80% at all concentrations, nominal values used
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: sterile Erlenmeyer flasks
- Initial cell density: 20000 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: 1,160,000 cells/mL

GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: yes
- Photoperiod: continuous illumination
- Light intensity and quality: 8000 lux (white)


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : cell number and cell growth
- Determination of cell concentrations: spectrophotometer at 685 nm


Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
20 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
7.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
14 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control (for algal test): yes (20,000 to 1,160,000 cells/mL)
- Observation of abnormalities (for algal test): no
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Probit analyis (Cavalli-Sforza 1972)
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
20 Jan - 23 Jan 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples were taken at 0 and 72 hrs.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
0.27 g of the test material was dissolved in 1 L of distilled water, to give a nominal 100 mg/L stock solution. Test solutions in the range of 0.56 to 5.6 mg/L were prepare by dilluting apropriate volumes of stock solution with ISO algal medium.
Test organisms (species):
Desmodesmus subspicatus (previous name: Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Scenedesmus subspicatus
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): no data
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Test temperature:
23.0-25.0
pH:
6.8 - 7.6
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0.56; 1.0; 1.8; 3.2; 5.6 mg/L
Measured: 0.27; 0.51; 0.97; 1.68; 3.09 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: no data
- Initial cells density: 10^4 cells mL
- Control end cells density: 6*10^5 cells mL
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 6


GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: yes

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
ISO medium

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: no
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: none (continuous ilumination)
- Light intensity and quality: 2100-3000 lux

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell concentrations: Coulter Counter

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: 0.56; 1.0; 1.8; 3.2; 5.6 mg/L (nominal)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 3.09 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 3.09 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
biomass
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
>= 3.09
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
- Exponential growth in the control (for algal test): yes
- Observation of abnormalities (for algal test): no
- Unusual cell shape: no
- Colour differences: no
- Flocculation: no
- Adherence to test vessels: no
- Aggregation of algal cells: no
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Remarks:
ummary of available data used for the endpoint assessment of the target substance
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the Category Approach Justification document provided in IUCLID6 Section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.38 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source:, key, 68890-70-0, 1986
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC20
Effect conc.:
2.06 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source:, key, 68890-70-0, 1986
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.43 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Source:, key, 68890-70-0, 1986

Description of key information

72h EC50 (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, growth rate) = 4.43 mg/L (nominal concentration, US EPA OPPTS 850.5400)
72h EC10 (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, growth rate) = 1.38 mg/L (nominal concentration, US EPA OPPTS 850.5400)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
4.43 mg/L
EC50 for marine water algae:
1.38 mg/L

Additional information

Since no reliable test involving aquatic ialgae is available for C14-16AS Na (CAS 91648-54-3), in accordance to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI, 1.5, a read-across to another structurally related category members was conducted. Read-across data from the following alkyl sulfates were used: C14-15AS Na and C12-18AS Na (CAS 68955-19-1).

In a key 72-h algae growth inhibition study (P&G 1986) the cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to C14-15 alkyl sulfate at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/L in accordance with the US EPA OPPTS 850.5400 guideline. The test was performed under GLP conditions without analytical check of test concentrations. The 72 h EC10 and EC50 values were 1.38 mg/L and 4.43 mg/L respectively (nominal concentrations). The results are based on cell count.

In the supporting algae toxicity study (P&G 1993), the cultures of Scenedesmus subspicatus were exposed to C14-15AS Na at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.62, 1.1, 2.0, 3.5, 6.2 and 11 mg/L under static conditions in accordance with OECD 201 guideline. The test was performed under GLP conditions without analytical monitoring of test concentrations. The 72h ErC50 was 10.4 mg a.i/L, and the EbC50 was 4.14 mg a.i/L based on nominal concentrations. ErC10 for growth rate was 1.93 mg/L.

Moreover, three supporting studies are available for C12-18AS Na (CAS 68955-19-1). The GLP study of Sasol (1997) was conducted according to the EU method C.3 with Desmodesmus subspicatus. The EC50 value for growth rate reported after 72 h of exposure was 20 mg/L. The 72-hour EC10 value was 7.6 mg/L.

Another test was performed by Unilever (1992) according to OECD 201 with Desmodesmus subcapitatus. The 72 h EC50 for growth rate and biomass, as well as NOEC for biomass were above 3.09 mg/L.

The further available supporting study of (BASF 1992) is conducted according to the German standard method DIN 38412, part 9. The 96-hour EC50 was 38 mg/L based on cell number.

Due to the structural and property similarities with the tested category members these results can also be used to determine the toxicity to aquatic algae of C14-16AS Na (CAS 91648-54-3). The reliable 72 h EC10 and EC50 toxicity values to algae are 1.38 mg/L and 4.43 mg/L respectively.