Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

In accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, Section 8.7.3 Column 1, no extended one-generation reproductive study is required as the available repeated dose toxicity data do not indicate adverse effects on reproductive organs and tissues or other concerns in relation with reproductive toxicity.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity (WoE, OECD 414), rat: two prenatal developmental toxicity studies are available for the dermal route. One study results in a NOAEL of 2000 mg/kg bw (RA from CAS 67762-53-2) and the second one in a NOAEL < 800 mg/kg bw (RA from CAS 11138-60-6)
One prenatal developmental toxicity is available for the oral route, which results in a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw (RA from CAS 111937-03-2)

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions; few details on test substance given, no analysis of the test compound
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
few details on test substance given, no analysis of the test compound
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Kingston, NY
- Age at study initiation: young adult
- Weight at study initiation: Mean of the maternal body weight: 226 g (Vehicle), 225 g (200 mg/kg bw/day), 227 g (600 mg/kg bw/day), 226 g (2000 mg/kg bw/day)
- Fasting period before study: No
- Housing: Virgin females were cohabitated with singly-housed male rats, one male per female rat for a maximum of 5 days and returned to individual housing in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages after mating.
- Diet: Certified Rodent Diet No. 5002 (PMI Feeds Inc. St.Louis, MO), ad libitum
- Water: water passaged through a reverse osmosis membrane with chlorine added as a bacteriostat, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: yes, period not mentioned

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 25
- Humidity (%): 30 - 70
- Air changes (per hr): 10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 / 12
Route of administration:
dermal
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: The back of the animals from the shoulders to the hip joints and extended ventrolaterally from the dorsal midline on each side (5x7 cm)
- % coverage: approx. 10% of the body surface
- Type of wrap: occlusive, gauze pad secured with Vetrap or Micropore tape
- Time intervals for shavings or clippings: during acclimatization period

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing: exposed area was wiped with a dermal wipe pad dampened with aqueous 1% solution of soap and then patted dry with a second clean pad
- Time after start of exposure: 6 h

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied: 2 mL/kg
- Concentration: 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg/day
- Constant volume or concentration used: yes

VEHICLE
- Amount(s) applied: 2 mL/kg
- Concentration: up to 100% (vehicle control)

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes, Elizabethan collar
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: maximum 5 days
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: Not applicable
- Verification of same strain and source of both sexes: No Data
- Proof of pregnancy: Both, vaginal plug and/or sperm in vaginal smear were referred to as Day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Treatment on Gestation Days (GD) 6 - 15
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Duration of test:
Termination of the study by CO2 inhalation on GD 20.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Dose dependent occurrence of skin irritation. Higher levels than 2000 mg/kg bw/day might be expected to produce marked irritation thereby compromising the interpretaion of developmental results.
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): Computer-generated randomization by weight (Barlett´s test for homogeneity) such that the groups were not statistically different (5% significance level) from each other.
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Animals were checked for mortality twice daily during the treatment period and daily thereafter.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Animals were checked for signs of reaction to treatment and/or symptoms of illness once daily before treatment, approx. 60 min after treatment during the dosing period. The dosing site was examined daily prior to substance application for signs of skin irritation according to Draize.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Recorded on GD 0 and daily during the treatment period.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg b.w./day: Yes
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation Day 20
- Organs examined: The uterus, uterine contents, position of the fetuses in the uterus and number of corpora lutea. Number and distribution of intrauterine implantations were classified as live or death fetuses, late intrauterine deaths (resorptions) and early intrauterine resorption sites. Live fetuses were sexed and further examined (see below).
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: Yes: half per litter (the heads of the animals used for soft tissue examinations)
Statistics:
Clinical observations and other proportion data were analyzed using the Variance Test for Homogeneity of the Binominal Distribution. Quantitative continuous data were analyzed using Barlett´s Test for Homogeneity of Variance and the Analysis of Variance when Barlett´s Test was not significant (p >0.05). If the Analysis of Variance was significant (p>0.05), Dunnett´s Test was used to identify the statistical significance of the individual groups. If the Analysis of Variance was not appropriate, the Kruskal-Wallis Test was used when >75% ties were present. In case of significance (p >0.05), Dunn´s Method of Multiple Comparisons was used for identification of statistical significance of the individual groups.
Historical control data:
No details. One dam having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The two highest dose levels caused some local irritation at the site of application, but no decreases in maternal weight gain or feed consumption (non-adverse)
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Two animals in the control group and one animal in the high-dose group died within 6 h after first application; these were not considered to be treatment related and the animals were replaced (non-adverse)
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Necropsy findings were limited to skin flaking and scabbing first identified in life and observations related to wearing the Elizabethan collar (local alopecia, chromorhinorrhea, and neck lesions) (non-adverse)
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One dam of the mid-dose group (1/25) having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility (non-adverse)
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: yes (local irritation)

Details on maternal toxic effects:
The two highest dose levels caused some local irritation at the site of application, but no decreases in maternal weight gain or feed consumption. Two animals in the control group and one animal in the high-dose group died within 6 h after first application; these were not considered to be treatment related and the animals were replaced. One dam of the mid-dose group (1/25) having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility.
Necropsy findings were limited to skin flaking and scabbing first identified in life and observations related to wearing the Elizabethan collar (local alopecia, chromorhinorrhea, and neck lesions).
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
local
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
There were no significant differences from control in any of the developmental parameters measured, including embryo/fetal viability, fetal weight, malformations, or variations. The observed effects in fetuses were not dose-independent and regarded to be sporadic.
Remarks on result:
other: no effects determined
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Skin reaction observations

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Maximum possible incidencesa

375/25

375/25

375/25

375/25

Erythema

Total

0/0

2/1

22/4

91/13b

Grade 1

0/0

2/1

10/4

81/13b

Grade 2

0/0

0/0

4/1

10/4b

Flaking

Total

11/3

15/2

55/6

170/17 b

Grade 1

11/3

9/2

27/5

61/14 b

Grade 2

0/0

6/1

19/4

71/14b

Grade 3

0/0

0/0

9/1

38/7 b

Edema

Total

0/0

0/0

23/4

83/11b

Grade 1

0/0

0/0

18/4

59/11b

Grade 2

0/0

0/0

5/1

24/6b

Scab

0/0

0/0

6/2

19/4

a:       Maximum incidence : Days x rats from first treatment on GD 6 through sacrifice on GD 20 divided by the number of rats examined per group on GD 6-20

b:        Significantly different from vehicle control group value (p≤0.01)

 

Table 2: Maternal reproductive, litter, and fetal alteration observations: Caesarian-Section results on GD 20

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Rats pregnant and sectioned on Day 20 of gestation (n)

25

23

22b

24

Corpora lutea/dam

16.4

16.6

16.9

16.5

Implantation sites/litter

15.0

15.4

14.9

14.2

Litter size

Live fetuses/litter

14.6

14.6

14.0

13.3

Live fetuses (n)

364

335

308

320

Dead fetuses (n)

0

0

0

0

Resorptions

0.4

0.9

0.9

0.9

Early (n)

10

20

19

21

Late (n)

1

0

0

0

Dams with any resorptions n(%)

9 (36)

11 (48)

15 (68)

11 (46)

% resorbed/litter

2.9

5.4

5.8

5.0

% male/litter

51.3

50.8

48.1

47.7

Live fetal body weight (g/litter)

3.68

3.62

3.69

3.75

Male

3.77

3.68

3.82

3.85

Female

3.58

3.56

3.58

3.65

Fetuses evaluated (n)

364

335

308

320

Litters with any alterations observed n(%)

10 (40)

8 (35)

14 (64)

7 (25)

Fetuses with any alterations observed n(%)

13 (3.5)

10 (3.0)

20 (6.5)

9 (2.0)

% fetuses/litter with any alterations observed

3.5

2.9

6.8c

2.7

b:       Excludes values for one dam, which had a litter consisting of seven early resorptions.

c:       Significantly different from vehicle control group value (p≤0.05)

Table 3: Fetal evaluations

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Litters evaluated

25

23

22b

24

Fetuses evaluated

364

335

308

320

Live

364

335

308

320

Fetal gross external alterations

364

335

308

320

Tail: kinked

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1 (4.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(0.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Body: hematoma

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

0(0)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1 (0.3)

0(0)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal soft tissue alterations, evaluations

174

162

149

155

Vessels: umbilical artery descended to the left of urinary bladder

Litter incidence, n (%)

2(8.0)

3(13.0)

2(9.1)

2(8.3)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

2(1.1)

3(1.8)

3(2.0)

2(1.3)

Vessels: apparent additional umbilical artery descended left of the bladder

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

1(4.5)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

1(0.7)

0(0)

Fetal skeletal alterations, evaluations

190

173

159

165

Cervical vertebrae: cervical rib present at 7th cervical vertebrae

Litter incidence, n (%)

2(8.0)

1(4.3)

1(4.8)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

2(1.0)

2(1.2)

1(1.2)

0(0)

Thoracic vertebrae: centrum, bifid

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

1(4.3)

5(22.7)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1(0.5)

1(0.6)

5(3.1)a

0(0)

Lumbar vertebrae: centrum, bifid

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(4.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(0.6)

0(0)

0(0)

Ribs: wavy

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(9.1)

1(4.2)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.2)

1(0.5

Sternal centra: 1st, not ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

0(0)

0(0)

2(8.3)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1(0.5)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.3)

Sternal centra: 1st, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

3(12.0)

3(13.0)

2(5.1)

1(4.2)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

4(2.1)

4(2.3)

2(1.2)

1(0.6)

Pelvis: pubis, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

3(12.0)

0(0)

4(18.2)

3(12.5)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

3(1.6)

0(0)

5(3.1)

3(1.8)

Pelvis: ischium, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(9.1)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.2)

0(0)

a: Significantly different from vehicle control group (p≤0.01)

Conclusions:
In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats were dermally exposed to the test substance. No adverse effects were observed in any maternal or reproductive parameter or on external and skeletal development of fetuses. Thus, the developmental NOAEL (maternal/developmental) was determined to be 2000 mg/kg bw. The local NOAEL was considered to be 200 mg/kg bw/day due to local dermal irritation.
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
28 Jun - 21 Jul 1994
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP-guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Short treatment period (Day 6-15 of gestation), body weight was recorded on Day 0, 6, 16 and 20 only, food consumption was not recorded, the analytical purity of the test substance was not specified.
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
exposure from Day 6 to Day 15 of gestation, body weight was recorded on Day 0, 6, 16 and 20, food consumption was not recorded
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Sprague-Dawley, CD
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Wiga GmbH, Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: 8 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 202.6 ± 20.4 g - 219 ± 25.6 g (range of group mean values)
- Housing: the animals were housed individually in Makrolon Type M3 cages (Ebeco, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany), on standard softwood bedding (ARWI-Center, Essen, Germany)
- Diet: pelleted Altromin Maintenance Diet 1324 (Fa. Altromin GmbH, Lage, Germany), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 24
- Humidity (%): 48 - 82
- Air changes (per hr): 10 - 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12 (lux units 50 - 550)

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 28 Jun 1994 To: 21 Jul 1994
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose + 0.25% Cremophor in aqua dest.
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was prepared daily before administration, adjusted to the body weight measured on Day 6 of gestation.

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 1, 3, 10% (10, 30, 100 mg/mL)
- Amount of vehicle: 10 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The mixture of the test item was analysed once to verify the actual concentration. The measured concentration was within the expected range. The nominal concentrations 1 % (100 mg/kg bw/day), 3 % (300 mg/kg bw/day) and 10 % (1000 mg/kg bw/day) were measured to be 1.1%, 3.0% and 10.5%, respectively.
Details on mating procedure:
- Any other deviations from standard protocol: Primiparous time-mated females were used. The females were mated at the supplier with an accurate day of mating and received at the testing facility on gestation day 0.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Day 6 -15 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
daily, 7 days/week
Duration of test:
10 days; Day 6 - 15 of gestation
No. of animals per sex per dose:
23 P females (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day)
24 P females (control, 1000 mg/kg bw/day)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: on Day 0 (prior to administration), 6, 16 and 20 of gestation

FOOD CONSUMPTION: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: gross macroscopic examination of all reproductive and gender-specific organs, with emphasis on the uterus, uterine contents, position of the fetuses in the uterus and number of corpora lutea
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Other: weight of fetuses
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes, all fetuses
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes, half per litter (146 fetuses of group 1, 133 fetuses in group 2, 169 fetuses in group 3 and 162 fetuses in group 4)
- Skeletal examinations: Yes, half per litter (159 fetuses of group 1, 144 fetuses in group 2, 178 fetuses in group 3 and 172 fetuses in group 4)
- Head examinations: No

Group 1: control
Group 2: 100 mg/kg bw/day
Group 3: 300 mg/kg bw/day
Group 4: 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Statistics:
If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-Test, based on pooled variance, was applied for comparison between groups. The Steel-Test was applied when the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution. Fisher's Exact test for 2x2 tables was applied if the variables could be dichotomized without loss of information (Bonferroni-Holm-corrected).
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The mean body weight of the mid-dose group was statistically significantly increased on Day 16 and 20 of the study period. This considered to be an incidental observation, as the body weight gain over the study period was comparable between the control and treatment groups (58.9, 67.8, 57.4 and 59.6 g for the control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, respectively) (non-adverse)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One female in each of the control group and the low-dose group was not pregnant, while all the pregnant females had viable fetuses (non-adverse)
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
There was no mortality during the study period. No signs of systemic toxicity were observed. The mean body weight of the mid-dose group was statistically significantly increased on Day 16 and 20 of the study period (see Table 1). This considered to be an incidental observation, as the body weight gain over the study period was comparable between the control and treatment groups (58.9, 67.8, 57.4 and 59.6 g for the control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, respectively). One female in each of the control group and the low-dose group was not pregnant, while all the pregnant females had viable fetuses (see Table 2). No substance-related effects on the reproductive parameters (number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss, embryonic deaths, embryonic resorptions, fetal resorptions, live fetuses, dead fetuses) were observed (see Table 3). The necropsy and macroscopic examination did not show any treatment-related effects. One female in the high-dose group had blood in the uterine horn, but this is not considered to be treatment-related as no other effects were observed.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The skeletal examination showed a statistically significant increase in the number of fetuses with 6 ossified sternebrae in the high-dose group (see Table 5). As there were no increases in ossification anywhere else and no overall increase in abnormal findings for this group, the result is considered to be incidental. (non-adverse)
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
The external examination of the fetuses did not reveal any treatment-related macroscopical effects. The skeletal examination showed a statistically significant increase in the number of fetuses with 6 ossified sternebrae in the high-dose group (see Table 5). As there were no increases in ossification anywhere else and no overall increase in abnormal findings for this group, the result is considered to be incidental. The results for the remaining offspring parameters (body weight, placental weight, sex ratio) were comparable between the control and treatment groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: teratogenicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Body weights of pregnant females

Dose group

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Gestation day 0

212.3

202.6

219.7

209.0

Gestation day 6

263.1

255.5

273.5

259.4

Gestation day 16

340.7

338.6

361.7*

341.5

Gestation day 20

403.3

400.7

428.0*

407.9

*Dunnett-Test based on pooled variance, p < 0.05

 

Table 2: Summary of mating performance of the females

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

No. of mated females

24

23

23

24

No. of pregnant females*

23

22

23

24

No. of premature litters**

0

0

0

0

No. of mortalities

0

0

0

0

*Included in the statistical analysis

**Premature litter is an event in the cage immediately before the caesarean section

 

Table 3: Reproduction parameters for dams with live foetuses

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Number of dams

23

22

23

24

Corpora lutea (total)

376

343

403

390

Corpora lutea (mean±SD)

16.3±1.5

15.6±1.2

17.5±1.6

16.2±2.3

Implantation sites (total)

316

301

367

346

Implantation sitesaas:

-% of corp. lutea

- mean±SD

 

84.0

13.7±3.7

 

87.8

13.7±2.5

 

91.1

16.0±1.9

 

88.7

14.4±3.1

Pre-implantation loss (total)b

60

42

36*

44

Pre-Implantation lossas

% of corpora lutea

16.0

12.2

8.9

11.3

Post-implantation lossb

11

24

20

12

Post-implantation loss as

% of implantation sites

3.5

8.0

5.4

3.5

Embryonic deaths totalb

11

24

20

12

Embryonic resorptions (total)a

9

18

20

10

Embryonic resorptions as

% of implantation sites (mean±SD)

2.8±0.4

6.0±0.8

5.4±0.9

2.9±0.4

Foetal resorptions (total)a

2

6

0

2

Foetal resorptionsas

% of implantation sites(mean±SD)

0.6±0.1

2.0±0.3

0

0.6±0.1

Fetuses per dam (mean±SD)

13.3±3.6

12.6±3.1

15.1±2.4

13.9±2.7

Live foetusesa

305

277

347

334

Dead foetusesa

0

0

0

0

Malformed foetuses

0

0

0

0

Uterus weightc(mean±SD)

81.3±24.1

77.4±18.0

97.0±15.7*

88.8±18.3

aSteel Test

bFishers Exact Test (Bonferroni-Holm-Corrected)

cDunnett-Test based on pooled variance

*p < 0.05

 

Table 4: Developmental parameters for offspring

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Number of live foetuses (m/f)

305 (154/151)

277 (141/136)

347 (162/185)

334 (165/169)

Sex ratio (m/f)

0.51/0.49

0.51/0.49

0.47/0.53

0.49/0.51

Weights of live foetuses

(mean±SD)

4.1±0.8

4.1±0.6

4.4±0.8

4.2±0.6

No. of runts

1

2

1

2

Table 5: results of skeletal examination of offspring

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

No abnormal findings, number (% of total)

10 (6.3%)

12 (8.3%)

32 (18.0%)**

10 (5.8%)

6 ossified sternebrae, number (% of total)

124 (78.0%)

120 (83.3%)

151 (84.8%)

153 (89%)**

** Fishers Exact Test (two-sided), p < 0.01

 

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions (15 dams per group instead of 20, administration on day 0 - 19 of gestation, limited details on study design)
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(only 15 presumed pregnant females per group, exposure on day 0 - 19 of gestation, only 2 dose levels, nonstandard dermal exposure, limited details on exposure)
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Kingston, N.Y.
- Age at study initiation: approx. 9 weeks
- Mean weight at study initiation: 248 g
- Diet: Purina Certified Rodent Chow #5002 (Meal), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20 - 22
- Humidity (%): 40 - 60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
dermal
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Type of wrap if used: open exposure, no wrap
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: no data on frequency; clipped, intact skin
- Site: dorsal
Controls: The rats of the control group were clipped and collared. The intact dorsal skin of each rat was stroked with the tip of a syringe, but no test material was applied.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing: no

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied: The amount of the test material applied with a syringe was calculated based on the body weight of the animals and the density of the test substance.

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes.
- To minimize ingestion of the test material, the rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan-style collars.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused: M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
gestation days 0 - 19
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Duration of test:
The animals were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 presumed-pregnant females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: based on results of a 13-week dermal study previously conducted with the same material
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: at least once daily
- Cage side observations checked: signs of pathosis, abortion, premature delivery, and death

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No data

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: day 0, 3, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 20 of gestation

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes
- Time schedule for calculation: days 0-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-13, 13-16, and 16-20

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: The thoracic and abdominal cavities were exposed and all organs were examined grossly for evidence of pathosis.

OTHER:
- Clinical chemistry: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, albumin/globulin ration, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, globulin, glucose, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), total protein, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and uric acid
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Number of live and dead fetuses: Yes
- Other: The ovaries of non-pregnant females were grossly examined and then discarded.
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: No
Statistics:
- Analysis of variances and group comparison using Fisher's Exact or Dunnett's test (maternal biophase and cesarean section data, and fetal data)
- ANOVA and Fisher's Exact test (fetal skeletal data)
- Fisher's Exact test (fetal visceral data)
- SAS procdures, Student-Newman-Keul's multiple comparison test (clinical chemistry data)
P <0.05
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild dermal irritation including erythema and flaking of the skin in the treatment groups (non-adverse)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
similar to control in both treatment groups; only difference (statistically significant) in high dose group on day 13-16: 31.5 g vs. 29.5 g (corresponding control data) (non-adverse)
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: yes (slight local effects)

Details on maternal toxic effects:
- General observations: neck lesions, red nasal exudate, and chromodacryorrhea in all groups (considered not to be test substance-related as these signs are common in animals that are collared)
- Local effects: mild dermal irritation including erythema and flaking of the skin in the treatment groups
- Body weight: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Body weight gain: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Uterine and net body weights: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Food consumption: similar to control in both treatment groups; only difference (statistically significant) in high dose group on day 13-16: 31.5 g vs. 29.5 g (corresponding control data)
- Necropsy: no remarkable findings were observed
- Fetal status and uterine position: no parameter evaluated appeared to be adversely affected
- Clinical chemistry: no differences between treated and non-treated rats were observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Malformations (lumbar and sacral vertebrae, tail, sternebrae, and ribs) were observed. The incidence was low and there was no apparent dose-response relationship, these effects were considered to be not treatment-related. Comparable incidences of variant skeletal development were observed in both control and treated fetuses (non-adverse)
Visceral malformations:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
A statistically significant (high dose) increase in the number of fetuses with levocardia was observed. The response appeared to be dose-related (adverse)
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
- Fetal body measurements: Mean fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths, parameters of body growth and development were normal compared to controls.
- Fetal examination: No malformations or variations were observed. Bruises were observed on the skin of 4 fetuses from the control group and 2 fetuses form the 800 mg/kg bw/day group (considered to be incidental). One fetus from one dam exposed to 800 mg/kg bw/day was pale in colour. No other remarkable findings were observed during external examination.
- Malformations (lumbar and sacral vertebrae, tail, sternebrae, and ribs) were observed. The incidence was low and there was no apparent dose-response relationship, these effects were considered to be not treatment-related. Comparable incidences of variant skeletal development were observed in both control and treated fetuses.
- Visceral examinations: A statistically significant (high dose) increase in the number of fetuses with levocardia was observed. The response appeared to be dose-related
Levocardia:
Litters: control: 0 (0%); 800 mg/kg bw/day: 2 (14.3%); 2000 mg/kg bw/day: 7 (50%); 14 litters per group examined
Fetuses: control: 0 (0%); 800 mg/kg bw/day: 3 (3.2%); 2000 mg/kg bw/day: 7 (10.1%); 94, 93, and 99 fetuses examined, respectively
Microphthalmia, anophtalmia and "apparent" hydronephrosis were also observed. Variant visceral development was observed in control and treated fetuses.
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
< 800 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Levocardia was the only parameter affected in fetuses of dams treated with the test substance during gestation. In other studies, levocardia was observed in control fetuses, too. However, the effect of the test substance on heart development should be focused on in further studies as well as the impact of this effect on postnatal survival.

Conclusions:
In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats were dermally exposed to the test substance. No adverse effects were observed in any maternal or reproductive parameter or on external and skeletal development of fetuses. Levocardia was observed in 3.2% and 10.1% of the fetuses exposed in utero to 800 and 2000 mg/kg bw /day, respectively. Thus, the developmental NOAEL was determined to be <800 mg/kg bw.
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Kingston, NY
- Age at study initiation: young adult
- Weight at study initiation: Mean of the maternal body weight: 226 g (Vehicle), 225 g (200 mg/kg bw/day), 227 g (600 mg/kg bw/day), 226 g (2000 mg/kg bw/day)
- Fasting period before study: No
- Housing: Virgin females were cohabitated with singly-housed male rats, one male per female rat for a maximum of 5 days and returned to individual housing in stainless steel wire-bottomed cages after mating.
- Diet: Certified Rodent Diet No. 5002 (PMI Feeds Inc. St.Louis, MO), ad libitum
- Water: water passaged through a reverse osmosis membrane with chlorine added as a bacteriostat, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: yes, period not mentioned

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 25
- Humidity (%): 30 - 70
- Air changes (per hr): 10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 / 12
Route of administration:
dermal
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure: The back of the animals from the shoulders to the hip joints and extended ventrolaterally from the dorsal midline on each side (5x7 cm)
- % coverage: approx. 10% of the body surface
- Type of wrap: occlusive, gauze pad secured with Vetrap or Micropore tape
- Time intervals for shavings or clippings: during acclimatization period

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing: exposed area was wiped with a dermal wipe pad dampened with aqueous 1% solution of soap and then patted dry with a second clean pad
- Time after start of exposure: 6 h

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied: 2 mL/kg
- Concentration: 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg/day
- Constant volume or concentration used: yes

VEHICLE
- Amount(s) applied: 2 mL/kg
- Concentration: up to 100% (vehicle control)

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes, Elizabethan collar
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: maximum 5 days
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: Not applicable
- Verification of same strain and source of both sexes: No Data
- Proof of pregnancy: Both, vaginal plug and/or sperm in vaginal smear were referred to as Day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Treatment on Gestation Days (GD) 6 - 15
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Duration of test:
Termination of the study by CO2 inhalation on GD 20.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Dose dependent occurrence of skin irritation. Higher levels than 2000 mg/kg bw/day might be expected to produce marked irritation thereby compromising the interpretaion of developmental results.
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): Computer-generated randomization by weight (Barlett´s test for homogeneity) such that the groups were not statistically different (5% significance level) from each other.
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Animals were checked for mortality twice daily during the treatment period and daily thereafter.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Animals were checked for signs of reaction to treatment and/or symptoms of illness once daily before treatment, approx. 60 min after treatment during the dosing period. The dosing site was examined daily prior to substance application for signs of skin irritation according to Draize.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Recorded on GD 0 and daily during the treatment period.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg b.w./day: Yes
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation Day 20
- Organs examined: The uterus, uterine contents, position of the fetuses in the uterus and number of corpora lutea. Number and distribution of intrauterine implantations were classified as live or death fetuses, late intrauterine deaths (resorptions) and early intrauterine resorption sites. Live fetuses were sexed and further examined (see below).
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: Yes: half per litter (the heads of the animals used for soft tissue examinations)
Statistics:
Clinical observations and other proportion data were analyzed using the Variance Test for Homogeneity of the Binominal Distribution. Quantitative continuous data were analyzed using Barlett´s Test for Homogeneity of Variance and the Analysis of Variance when Barlett´s Test was not significant (p >0.05). If the Analysis of Variance was significant (p>0.05), Dunnett´s Test was used to identify the statistical significance of the individual groups. If the Analysis of Variance was not appropriate, the Kruskal-Wallis Test was used when >75% ties were present. In case of significance (p >0.05), Dunn´s Method of Multiple Comparisons was used for identification of statistical significance of the individual groups.
Historical control data:
No details. One dam having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The two highest dose levels caused some local irritation at the site of application, but no decreases in maternal weight gain or feed consumption (non-adverse)
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Two animals in the control group and one animal in the high-dose group died within 6 h after first application; these were not considered to be treatment related and the animals were replaced (non-adverse)
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Necropsy findings were limited to skin flaking and scabbing first identified in life and observations related to wearing the Elizabethan collar (local alopecia, chromorhinorrhea, and neck lesions) (non-adverse)
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One dam of the mid-dose group (1/25) having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility (non-adverse)
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: yes (local irritation)

Details on maternal toxic effects:
The two highest dose levels caused some local irritation at the site of application, but no decreases in maternal weight gain or feed consumption. Two animals in the control group and one animal in the high-dose group died within 6 h after first application; these were not considered to be treatment related and the animals were replaced. One dam of the mid-dose group (1/25) having a litter consisting of seven early resorptions was pointed out as single non-dosage dependent event and to be within the ranges observed historically at the test facility.
Necropsy findings were limited to skin flaking and scabbing first identified in life and observations related to wearing the Elizabethan collar (local alopecia, chromorhinorrhea, and neck lesions).
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
local
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
There were no significant differences from control in any of the developmental parameters measured, including embryo/fetal viability, fetal weight, malformations, or variations. The observed effects in fetuses were not dose-independent and regarded to be sporadic.
Remarks on result:
other: no effects determined
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Skin reaction observations

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Maximum possible incidencesa

375/25

375/25

375/25

375/25

Erythema

Total

0/0

2/1

22/4

91/13b

Grade 1

0/0

2/1

10/4

81/13b

Grade 2

0/0

0/0

4/1

10/4b

Flaking

Total

11/3

15/2

55/6

170/17 b

Grade 1

11/3

9/2

27/5

61/14 b

Grade 2

0/0

6/1

19/4

71/14b

Grade 3

0/0

0/0

9/1

38/7 b

Edema

Total

0/0

0/0

23/4

83/11b

Grade 1

0/0

0/0

18/4

59/11b

Grade 2

0/0

0/0

5/1

24/6b

Scab

0/0

0/0

6/2

19/4

a:       Maximum incidence : Days x rats from first treatment on GD 6 through sacrifice on GD 20 divided by the number of rats examined per group on GD 6-20

b:        Significantly different from vehicle control group value (p≤0.01)

 

Table 2: Maternal reproductive, litter, and fetal alteration observations: Caesarian-Section results on GD 20

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Rats pregnant and sectioned on Day 20 of gestation (n)

25

23

22b

24

Corpora lutea/dam

16.4

16.6

16.9

16.5

Implantation sites/litter

15.0

15.4

14.9

14.2

Litter size

Live fetuses/litter

14.6

14.6

14.0

13.3

Live fetuses (n)

364

335

308

320

Dead fetuses (n)

0

0

0

0

Resorptions

0.4

0.9

0.9

0.9

Early (n)

10

20

19

21

Late (n)

1

0

0

0

Dams with any resorptions n(%)

9 (36)

11 (48)

15 (68)

11 (46)

% resorbed/litter

2.9

5.4

5.8

5.0

% male/litter

51.3

50.8

48.1

47.7

Live fetal body weight (g/litter)

3.68

3.62

3.69

3.75

Male

3.77

3.68

3.82

3.85

Female

3.58

3.56

3.58

3.65

Fetuses evaluated (n)

364

335

308

320

Litters with any alterations observed n(%)

10 (40)

8 (35)

14 (64)

7 (25)

Fetuses with any alterations observed n(%)

13 (3.5)

10 (3.0)

20 (6.5)

9 (2.0)

% fetuses/litter with any alterations observed

3.5

2.9

6.8c

2.7

b:       Excludes values for one dam, which had a litter consisting of seven early resorptions.

c:       Significantly different from vehicle control group value (p≤0.05)

Table 3: Fetal evaluations

 

0 mg/kg bw/d

200 mg/kg bw/d

600 mg/kg bw/d

2000 mg/kg bw/d

Litters evaluated

25

23

22b

24

Fetuses evaluated

364

335

308

320

Live

364

335

308

320

Fetal gross external alterations

364

335

308

320

Tail: kinked

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1 (4.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(0.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Body: hematoma

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

0(0)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1 (0.3)

0(0)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal soft tissue alterations, evaluations

174

162

149

155

Vessels: umbilical artery descended to the left of urinary bladder

Litter incidence, n (%)

2(8.0)

3(13.0)

2(9.1)

2(8.3)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

2(1.1)

3(1.8)

3(2.0)

2(1.3)

Vessels: apparent additional umbilical artery descended left of the bladder

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

1(4.5)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

1(0.7)

0(0)

Fetal skeletal alterations, evaluations

190

173

159

165

Cervical vertebrae: cervical rib present at 7th cervical vertebrae

Litter incidence, n (%)

2(8.0)

1(4.3)

1(4.8)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

2(1.0)

2(1.2)

1(1.2)

0(0)

Thoracic vertebrae: centrum, bifid

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

1(4.3)

5(22.7)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1(0.5)

1(0.6)

5(3.1)a

0(0)

Lumbar vertebrae: centrum, bifid

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(4.3)

0(0)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

1(0.6)

0(0)

0(0)

Ribs: wavy

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(9.1)

1(4.2)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.2)

1(0.5

Sternal centra: 1st, not ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

1(4.0)

0(0)

0(0)

2(8.3)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

1(0.5)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.3)

Sternal centra: 1st, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

3(12.0)

3(13.0)

2(5.1)

1(4.2)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

4(2.1)

4(2.3)

2(1.2)

1(0.6)

Pelvis: pubis, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

3(12.0)

0(0)

4(18.2)

3(12.5)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

3(1.6)

0(0)

5(3.1)

3(1.8)

Pelvis: ischium, incompletely ossified

Litter incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(9.1)

0(0)

Fetal incidence, n (%)

0(0)

0(0)

2(1.2)

0(0)

a: Significantly different from vehicle control group (p≤0.01)

Conclusions:
In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats were dermally exposed to the test substance. No adverse effects were observed in any maternal or reproductive parameter or on external and skeletal development of fetuses. Thus, the developmental NOAEL (maternal/developmental) was determined to be 2000 mg/kg bw. The local NOAEL was considered to be 200 mg/kg bw/day due to local dermal irritation.
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Sprague-Dawley, CD
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River, Wiga GmbH, Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: 8 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 202.6 ± 20.4 g - 219 ± 25.6 g (range of group mean values)
- Housing: the animals were housed individually in Makrolon Type M3 cages (Ebeco, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany), on standard softwood bedding (ARWI-Center, Essen, Germany)
- Diet: pelleted Altromin Maintenance Diet 1324 (Fa. Altromin GmbH, Lage, Germany), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 24
- Humidity (%): 48 - 82
- Air changes (per hr): 10 - 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12 (lux units 50 - 550)

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 28 Jun 1994 To: 21 Jul 1994
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose + 0.25% Cremophor in aqua dest.
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test item was prepared daily before administration, adjusted to the body weight measured on Day 6 of gestation.

VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 1, 3, 10% (10, 30, 100 mg/mL)
- Amount of vehicle: 10 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The mixture of the test item was analysed once to verify the actual concentration. The measured concentration was within the expected range. The nominal concentrations 1 % (100 mg/kg bw/day), 3 % (300 mg/kg bw/day) and 10 % (1000 mg/kg bw/day) were measured to be 1.1%, 3.0% and 10.5%, respectively.
Details on mating procedure:
- Any other deviations from standard protocol: Primiparous time-mated females were used. The females were mated at the supplier with an accurate day of mating and received at the testing facility on gestation day 0.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Day 6 -15 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
daily, 7 days/week
Duration of test:
10 days; Day 6 - 15 of gestation
No. of animals per sex per dose:
23 P females (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day)
24 P females (control, 1000 mg/kg bw/day)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: on Day 0 (prior to administration), 6, 16 and 20 of gestation

FOOD CONSUMPTION: No

WATER CONSUMPTION: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: gross macroscopic examination of all reproductive and gender-specific organs, with emphasis on the uterus, uterine contents, position of the fetuses in the uterus and number of corpora lutea
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Other: weight of fetuses
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes, all fetuses
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes, half per litter (146 fetuses of group 1, 133 fetuses in group 2, 169 fetuses in group 3 and 162 fetuses in group 4)
- Skeletal examinations: Yes, half per litter (159 fetuses of group 1, 144 fetuses in group 2, 178 fetuses in group 3 and 172 fetuses in group 4)
- Head examinations: No

Group 1: control
Group 2: 100 mg/kg bw/day
Group 3: 300 mg/kg bw/day
Group 4: 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Statistics:
If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-Test, based on pooled variance, was applied for comparison between groups. The Steel-Test was applied when the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution. Fisher's Exact test for 2x2 tables was applied if the variables could be dichotomized without loss of information (Bonferroni-Holm-corrected).
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The mean body weight of the mid-dose group was statistically significantly increased on Day 16 and 20 of the study period. This considered to be an incidental observation, as the body weight gain over the study period was comparable between the control and treatment groups (58.9, 67.8, 57.4 and 59.6 g for the control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, respectively). (non-adverse)
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One female in each of the control group and the low-dose group was not pregnant, while all the pregnant females had viable fetuses (non-adverse)
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
There was no mortality during the study period. No signs of systemic toxicity were observed. The mean body weight of the mid-dose group was statistically significantly increased on Day 16 and 20 of the study period (see Table 1). This considered to be an incidental observation, as the body weight gain over the study period was comparable between the control and treatment groups (58.9, 67.8, 57.4 and 59.6 g for the control, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, respectively). One female in each of the control group and the low-dose group was not pregnant, while all the pregnant females had viable fetuses (see Table 2). No substance-related effects on the reproductive parameters (number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss, embryonic deaths, embryonic resorptions, fetal resorptions, live fetuses, dead fetuses) were observed (see Table 3). The necropsy and macroscopic examination did not show any treatment-related effects. One female in the high-dose group had blood in the uterine horn, but this is not considered to be treatment-related as no other effects were observed.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The skeletal examination showed a statistically significant increase in the number of fetuses with 6 ossified sternebrae in the high-dose group (see Table 5). As there were no increases in ossification anywhere else and no overall increase in abnormal findings for this group, the result is considered to be incidental (non-adverse)
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
The external examination of the fetuses did not reveal any treatment-related macroscopical effects. The skeletal examination showed a statistically significant increase in the number of fetuses with 6 ossified sternebrae in the high-dose group (see Table 5). As there were no increases in ossification anywhere else and no overall increase in abnormal findings for this group, the result is considered to be incidental. The results for the remaining offspring parameters (body weight, placental weight, sex ratio) were comparable between the control and treatment groups.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: teratogenicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Table 1: Body weights of pregnant females

Dose group

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Gestation day 0

212.3

202.6

219.7

209.0

Gestation day 6

263.1

255.5

273.5

259.4

Gestation day 16

340.7

338.6

361.7*

341.5

Gestation day 20

403.3

400.7

428.0*

407.9

*Dunnett-Test based on pooled variance, p < 0.05

 

Table 2: Summary of mating performance of the females

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

No. of mated females

24

23

23

24

No. of pregnant females*

23

22

23

24

No. of premature litters**

0

0

0

0

No. of mortalities

0

0

0

0

*Included in the statistical analysis

**Premature litter is an event in the cage immediately before the caesarean section

 

Table 3: Reproduction parameters for dams with live foetuses

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Number of dams

23

22

23

24

Corpora lutea (total)

376

343

403

390

Corpora lutea (mean±SD)

16.3±1.5

15.6±1.2

17.5±1.6

16.2±2.3

Implantation sites (total)

316

301

367

346

Implantation sitesaas:

-% of corp. lutea

- mean±SD

 

84.0

13.7±3.7

 

87.8

13.7±2.5

 

91.1

16.0±1.9

 

88.7

14.4±3.1

Pre-implantation loss (total)b

60

42

36*

44

Pre-Implantation lossas

% of corpora lutea

16.0

12.2

8.9

11.3

Post-implantation lossb

11

24

20

12

Post-implantation loss as

% of implantation sites

3.5

8.0

5.4

3.5

Embryonic deaths totalb

11

24

20

12

Embryonic resorptions (total)a

9

18

20

10

Embryonic resorptions as

% of implantation sites (mean±SD)

2.8±0.4

6.0±0.8

5.4±0.9

2.9±0.4

Foetal resorptions (total)a

2

6

0

2

Foetal resorptionsas

% of implantation sites(mean±SD)

0.6±0.1

2.0±0.3

0

0.6±0.1

Fetuses per dam (mean±SD)

13.3±3.6

12.6±3.1

15.1±2.4

13.9±2.7

Live foetusesa

305

277

347

334

Dead foetusesa

0

0

0

0

Malformed foetuses

0

0

0

0

Uterus weightc(mean±SD)

81.3±24.1

77.4±18.0

97.0±15.7*

88.8±18.3

aSteel Test

bFishers Exact Test (Bonferroni-Holm-Corrected)

cDunnett-Test based on pooled variance

*p < 0.05

 

Table 4: Developmental parameters for offspring

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

Number of live foetuses (m/f)

305 (154/151)

277 (141/136)

347 (162/185)

334 (165/169)

Sex ratio (m/f)

0.51/0.49

0.51/0.49

0.47/0.53

0.49/0.51

Weights of live foetuses

(mean±SD)

4.1±0.8

4.1±0.6

4.4±0.8

4.2±0.6

No. of runts

1

2

1

2

Table 5: results of skeletal examination of offspring

Dose group

 

Control

100 mg/kg bw/day

300 mg/kg bw/day

1000 mg/kg bw/day

No abnormal findings, number (% of total)

10 (6.3%)

12 (8.3%)

32 (18.0%)**

10 (5.8%)

6 ossified sternebrae, number (% of total)

124 (78.0%)

120 (83.3%)

151 (84.8%)

153 (89%)**

** Fishers Exact Test (two-sided), p < 0.01

 

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
refer to analogue justification provided in IUCLID section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Kingston, N.Y.
- Age at study initiation: approx. 9 weeks
- Mean weight at study initiation: 248 g
- Diet: Purina Certified Rodent Chow #5002 (Meal), ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20 - 22
- Humidity (%): 40 - 60
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12
Route of administration:
dermal
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
TEST SITE
- Type of wrap if used: open exposure, no wrap
- Time intervals for shavings or clipplings: no data on frequency; clipped, intact skin
- Site: dorsal
Controls: The rats of the control group were clipped and collared. The intact dorsal skin of each rat was stroked with the tip of a syringe, but no test material was applied.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing: no

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied: The amount of the test material applied with a syringe was calculated based on the body weight of the animals and the density of the test substance.

USE OF RESTRAINERS FOR PREVENTING INGESTION: yes.
- To minimize ingestion of the test material, the rats were fitted with cardboard Elizabethan-style collars.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused: M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
gestation days 0 - 19
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Duration of test:
The animals were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 presumed-pregnant females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: based on results of a 13-week dermal study previously conducted with the same material
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: at least once daily
- Cage side observations checked: signs of pathosis, abortion, premature delivery, and death

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No data

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: day 0, 3, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 20 of gestation

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: Yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes
- Time schedule for calculation: days 0-3, 3-6, 6-10, 10-13, 13-16, and 16-20

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE: No

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 20
- Organs examined: The thoracic and abdominal cavities were exposed and all organs were examined grossly for evidence of pathosis.

OTHER:
- Clinical chemistry: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, albumin/globulin ration, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, globulin, glucose, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), total protein, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and uric acid
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Number of live and dead fetuses: Yes
- Other: The ovaries of non-pregnant females were grossly examined and then discarded.
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: No
Statistics:
- Analysis of variances and group comparison using Fisher's Exact or Dunnett's test (maternal biophase and cesarean section data, and fetal data)
- ANOVA and Fisher's Exact test (fetal skeletal data)
- Fisher's Exact test (fetal visceral data)
- SAS procdures, Student-Newman-Keul's multiple comparison test (clinical chemistry data)
P <0.05
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
mild dermal irritation including erythema and flaking of the skin in the treatment groups (non-adverse)
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
similar to control in both treatment groups; only difference (statistically significant) in high dose group on day 13-16: 31.5 g vs. 29.5 g (corresponding control data) (non-adverse)
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects: yes (slight local effects)

Details on maternal toxic effects:
- General observations: neck lesions, red nasal exudate, and chromodacryorrhea in all groups (considered not to be test substance-related as these signs are common in animals that are collared)
- Local effects: mild dermal irritation including erythema and flaking of the skin in the treatment groups
- Body weight: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Body weight gain: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Uterine and net body weights: similar to controls in both treatment groups
- Food consumption: similar to control in both treatment groups; only difference (statistically significant) in high dose group on day 13-16: 31.5 g vs. 29.5 g (corresponding control data)
- Necropsy: no remarkable findings were observed
- Fetal status and uterine position: no parameter evaluated appeared to be adversely affected
- Clinical chemistry: no differences between treated and non-treated rats were observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic
Effect level:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Malformations (lumbar and sacral vertebrae, tail, sternebrae, and ribs) were observed. The incidence was low and there was no apparent dose-response relationship, these effects were considered to be not treatment-related. Comparable incidences of variant skeletal development were observed in both control and treated fetuses (non-adverse)
Visceral malformations:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
A statistically significant (high dose) increase in the number of fetuses with levocardia was observed. The response appeared to be dose-related (adverse)
Other effects:
not examined
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects: no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
- Fetal body measurements: Mean fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths, parameters of body growth and development were normal compared to controls.
- Fetal examination: No malformations or variations were observed. Bruises were observed on the skin of 4 fetuses from the control group and 2 fetuses form the 800 mg/kg bw/day group (considered to be incidental). One fetus from one dam exposed to 800 mg/kg bw/day was pale in colour. No other remarkable findings were observed during external examination.
- Malformations (lumbar and sacral vertebrae, tail, sternebrae, and ribs) were observed. The incidence was low and there was no apparent dose-response relationship, these effects were considered to be not treatment-related. Comparable incidences of variant skeletal development were observed in both control and treated fetuses.
- Visceral examinations: A statistically significant (high dose) increase in the number of fetuses with levocardia was observed. The response appeared to be dose-related
Levocardia:
Litters: control: 0 (0%); 800 mg/kg bw/day: 2 (14.3%); 2000 mg/kg bw/day: 7 (50%); 14 litters per group examined
Fetuses: control: 0 (0%); 800 mg/kg bw/day: 3 (3.2%); 2000 mg/kg bw/day: 7 (10.1%); 94, 93, and 99 fetuses examined, respectively
Microphthalmia, anophtalmia and "apparent" hydronephrosis were also observed. Variant visceral development was observed in control and treated fetuses.
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
800 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
< 800 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Levocardia was the only parameter affected in fetuses of dams treated with the test substance during gestation. In other studies, levocardia was observed in control fetuses, too. However, the effect of the test substance on heart development should be focused on in further studies as well as the impact of this effect on postnatal survival.

Conclusions:
In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats were dermally exposed to the test substance. No adverse effects were observed in any maternal or reproductive parameter or on external and skeletal development of fetuses. Levocardia was observed in 3.2% and 10.1% of the fetuses exposed in utero to 800 and 2000 mg/kg bw /day, respectively. Thus, the developmental NOAEL was determined to be <800 mg/kg bw.
Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 2) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common functional group(s), common precursors/breakdown products, similarities in PC/ECO/TOX properties (refer to endpoint discussion for further details). The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII-IX, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises adequate and reliable studies (Klimisch score 1) from reference substances with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common functional group(s), common precursors/breakdown products, similarities in PC/ECO/TOX properties (refer to endpoint discussion for further details). The selected studies are thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII-IX, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.
Additional information

Justification for read-across

There are no data available on toxicity to reproduction of Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with heptanoic acid and 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid. In order to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII, 8.7, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, read-across from structurally related substances was conducted. In accordance with Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, "information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, provided that the conditions set out in Annex XI are met.” In particular for human toxicity, information shall be generated whenever possible by means other than vertebrate animal tests, which includes the use of information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across) “to avoid the need to test every substance for every endpoint”. For each specific endpoint the source substance(s) structurally closest to the target substance is/are chosen for read-across, with due regard to the requirements of adequacy and reliability of the available data. Structural similarities and similarities in properties and/or activities of the source and target substance are the basis of read-across. A detailed justification for the analogue read-across approach is provided in the technical dossier (see IUCLID Section 13) and within Chapter 5.1 of the CSR.

 

Toxicity to reproduction (fertility)

In accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, Section 8.7.3 Column 1, no extended one-generation reproductive study is required as the available repeated dose toxicity data do not indicate adverse effects on reproductive organs and tissues or other concerns in relation with reproductive toxicity.

 

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

CAS 111937-03-2

A Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study was performed with Isononanoic acid, C16-18 alkyl esters (CAS 111937-03-2) via the oral route according to OECD TG 414 and in compliance with GLP (Pittermann, 1999). Groups of 23 and 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats received daily oral gavage doses of the test substance in vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose + 0.25% Cremophor in aqua dest.) at dose levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day and 0 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively during gestational days 6 to 15. On day 20 of gestation the animals were euthanized and examined for maternal and fetal parameters. Neither treatment-related effects on reproduction parameters such as number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss, embryonic deaths, embryonic resorptions, fetal resorptions, live fetuses, dead fetuses nor systemic toxicity were observed in parental females and F1 pups up to and including the highest dose level of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. No mortality occurred and necropsy and macroscopic examination did not show any treatment-related effects on parental females. The external/skeletal examination of fetuses did not reveal any treatment-related macroscopically effects. Therefore, the NOAEL for maternal/embryo-/fetotoxicity/teratogenicity in rats for Isononanoic acid, C16-18 alkyl esters was found to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

CAS 67762-53-2

A Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study was performed with Carboxylic acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 67762-53-2) via the dermal route equivalent or similar to OECD TG 414 (Feusten, 1988). Groups of 15 presumed pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats received daily dermal doses of the test substance at concentrations of 800 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day during gestational days 0 to 19. Control animals remained untreated. On day 20 of gestation the animals were euthanized and examined for maternal and fetal parameters. There were no adverse effects found for all parameters examined in maternal animals. Based on the number of implantations, number of total litter losses by resorption, mortality, clinical signs, body weight, gross pathology and organ weights of maternal animals the NOAEL for maternal toxicity was found to be 2000 mg/kg bw/day. Examination of fetus litter size and weights, offspring viability (number alive and number dead), sex ratio, grossly visible abnormalities, external, head, soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities revealed no differences to controls and thus no indication for teratogenic effects. The only effect found was a dose-dependently increased number of fetuses with levocardia, although no heart malformations have been detected. Furthermore levocardia was observed in vehicle control fetuses (Smith et al. 1988) and in the control fetuses conducted in the test laboratory. Since levocardia was observed in both treated groups, the NOAEL for embryo-/fetotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats for Carboxylic acids, C5-9, tetraesters with pentaerythritol was found to be <800 mg/kg bw/day whereas the LOAEL was considered to be 800 mg/kg bw/day.

 

CAS 11138-60-6

A Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study was performed with TMP ester of C8/C10 fatty acids (ESIS: Decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate) (CAS 11138-60-6) via the dermal route equivalent or similar to OECD TG 414 (Azuka and Daston, 2004). The test substance was percutaneously applied to Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 h/day under occlusive conditions. 25 animals per sex per dose were treated with 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg bw/day in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation. Control animals (25 per sex per dose) received the vehicle alone. The middle and the high dose levels caused some local irritation at the site of application, but no decreases in maternal weight gain or food consumption. There were no differences from control in any of the developmental parameters measured, including embryo/fetal viability, fetal weight, malformations, or variations. Therefore, a NOAEL of 2000 mg/kg bw/day was derived for prenatal development and for systemic maternal toxicity. Due to the irritation effects on skin, the local maternal NOAEL was found to be 200 mg/kg bw/day.

Overall conclusion for developmental toxicity/teratogenicity

Taken together, the available data on developmental toxicity from the analogue substances C8/C10 fatty acids (ESIS: Decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate) (CAS 11138-60-6) and Isononanoic acid, C16-18 alkyl esters (CAS 111937-03-2) do not indicate adverse effects on fetal development. An increased number of fetuses with levocardia was observed after in utero exposure to TMP ester of C8/C10 fatty acids (ESIS: Decanoic acid, ester with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol octanoate) (CAS 11138-60-6) via the dermal route. However, as no malformations in the heart were detected and levocardia was also observed in control fetuses of the respective test facility and in a further study (Smith et al. 1988), the toxicological relevance of this effect remains questionable. Thus, incidental occurrence of levocardia cannot be excluded. In conclusion, taking into consideration the available data obtained for 3 different analogue substances, Tetraesters of pentaerythritol with heptanoic acid and 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid is not expected to negatively affect in utero development.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the analogue read-across approach, the available data on developmental toxicity do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008, and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.

No data for reproductive toxicity is required in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Annex IX, Section 8.7.3 Column 1.

Additional information