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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental result using OECD guidelines.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Biodegradation study was conducted according to OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test) for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Hydrogen potassium phthalate
- Molecular formula : C8H5O4K
- Molecular weight : 204.221 g/mol
- Smiles notation : c1(c(cccc1)C(=O)[O-])C(O)=O.[K+]
- InChl : 1S/C8H6O4.K/c9-7(10)5-3-1-2-4-6(5)8(11)12;/h1-4H,(H,9,10)(H,11,12);/q;+1/p-1
- Substance type:Organic
- Physical state:Solid
Oxygen conditions:
not specified
Inoculum or test system:
other: Mixed inoculum
Details on inoculum:
Mixed Inoculum Preparation:Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule was added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 10E7 to 10E8 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.

Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
4 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS
- Composition of medium: OECD mineral medium was used for the study
- Test temperature: 20°C
- Continuous darkness: Yes
- Other: The water used in this study is deionized water.

TEST SYSTEM
- Culturing apparatus: The apparatus used in this study is BOD bottles; with glass stoppers (125 ml), BOD incubator & oxygen electrode and meter.

CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM
- Inoculum blank: it contains only test inoculum
- Procedure control: contains reference compound and inoculum
Reference substance:
other: Sodium Benzoate
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
97.34
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Details on results:
The oxygen consumed by the test systems was corrected for oxygen consumption occurring in the blank test systems. The BOD Values (mgO2/mg) and percent biodegradation results for each test system are reported in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.1 mgO2/mg. ThOD was determined by calculation as 1.13 mgO2/mg. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and was determined to be 97.34 % at 20 ± 1°C. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3 %. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.
Results with reference substance:
The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3 %. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.

TABLE 1: D.O Values(mg/L)

No. of Days

Inoculum Blank

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

 

(Control)

 

(Reference Item)

0

7.4

7.4

7.2

7

6.9

3.8

3.6

14

6.6

2.8

2.3

21

6.2

2

1.5

28

5.9

1.5

0.7

TABLE 2: BOD values (mgO2/mg)

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

(Reference Item)

 

 

0

0

0

7

0.77

0.77

14

0.92

1.02

21

1.05

1.12

28

1.1

1.25

TABLE 3: PERCENT BIODEGRDATION RESULTS

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

 

(Reference Item)

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

0%

 

0%

 

7

 

68.14%

 

46.38%

 

14

 

81.41%

 

61.44%

 

21

 

92.92%

 

67.46%

 

28

 

97.34%

 

75.3%

 

 

 

%

 

%

 

TABLE 4: BOD28, THOD AND % BIODEGRADATION VALUES

Method details

BOD28 (mgO2/mg)

ThOD (mgO2/mg)

% Biodegradation

Test Item

1.1

1.13

97.34

Reference Item

1.25

1.66

75.3

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test item Hydrogen potassium phthalate undergoes 97.34 % biodegradation after 28 days in the test condition. Thus, the test item was considered to be readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 10E7 to 10E8 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.1 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.13 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 97.34 %. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Description of key information

28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 10E7 to 10E8 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.1 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.13 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 97.34 %. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental study for the test compound Potassium hydrogen phthalate(CAS No. 877-24-7) were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

In the first key study from experimental report 28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 10E7 to 10E8 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.1 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.13 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 97.34 %. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

First study was supported by the second from peer reviewed journal. Biodegradation study was conducted for 30 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, monopotassium salt. Glucose-glutamic acid mixture was used as a reference substance for the biodegradation study. The results are compared with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the test chemical, which measures its maximum oxygen combining power; the results are also compared with the BOD test performed on a standard glucose-glutamic acid reference solution used for BOD caliberation. Reference substance i.e; glucose-glutamic acid mixture consumes 75 percent of its maximum oxygen requirement (COD) within 5 days and almost 100 percent in 30 days. Thus, based on this result, the reference substance is considered to be readily biodegradable. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 92% by BOD parameter in 30 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, monopotassium salt was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Based on the above both studies, chemical consider to be readily biodegradable in water.

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