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Description of key information

Skin Irritation:

The dermal irritation potential of test article was determined according to the OECD 439 In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method”. The MatTek EpiDerm™ model was used to assess the potential dermal irritation of the test article by determining the viability of the tissues following exposure to the test article via MTT. The objective of this study was to assess the dermal irritation potential of test article Tissues were exposed to test article and controls for ~one hour, followed by a 42 hour post-exposure recovery period. The viability of each tissue was determined by MTT assay. 

 

The MTT data shows that the assay quality controls were met. The mean tissue viabilities for the Positive control, Methyl acetate were 6.5%, 10.7% respectively in the first and second run, whereas the tissue viabilities of the negative control, Tissue culture water remained at 100% in the both the runs.

The Mean % tissue viability compared to negative control (n=3) of Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was determined to be 91.7%.

Hence, under the experimental test conditions it was concluded that Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was considered to be not irritating to the human skin and being classified as “Not Classified'' as per CLP Regulation.

Eye Irritation:

The ocular irritation potential of Aluminum tristearate was estimated using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with logPow as the primary descriptor.

Aluminum tristearate was estimated to be not irritating to the eyes of Himalayan rabbits.

On the basis of the estimated results, Aluminum tristearate can be considered to be not irritating to eyes and can be classified under the category “Not Classified” as per CLP regulation

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin irritation / corrosion

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
skin irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
December 04, 2017 to March 13, 2018
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Data is from experimental study report
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 439 (In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The purpose of this study is to provide classification of dermal irritation potential of a chemical by using a three-dimensional human epidermis model, according to the OECD Test Guideline No. 439, “In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method”.
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):Aluminium tristearate- Molecular formula :C18H36O2.1/3Al- Molecular weight: 877.3995 g/mol- Substance type:Organic- Physical state:SolidSTABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature or Fridge storage- Stability under test conditions: No data available- Solubility and stability of the test substance in the solvent/vehicle: No data available- Reactivity of the test substance with the solvent/vehicle of the cell culture medium: No data availableTREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING- Treatment of test material prior to testing: Test articles is tested as provided (neat).- Preliminary purification step (if any): No data available- Final dilution of a dissolved solid, stock liquid or gel: No data available- Final preparation of a solid: No data availableFORM AS APPLIED IN THE TEST: SolidOTHER SPECIFICS: No data available
Test system:
human skin model
Remarks:
MatTek EpiDerm™ Tissue Model
Source species:
human
Cell type:
non-transformed keratinocytes
Cell source:
other: EpiDerm™ 3-dimensional human tissues used in this study
Source strain:
other: Not applicable
Details on animal used as source of test system:
EpiDerm™ tissues, Lot No. 27646 Kits I and J, were received from MatTek on 12 Dec 2017, and Lot No. 27654 Kits O and P, were received from MatTek on 19 Dec 2017. All tissues were refrigerated at 2-8°C upon receipt. Before use, the tissues were incubated (37±1°C, 5±1% CO2) with assay medium (MatTek) for a one-hour equilibration. The tissues were then moved to new wells with fresh medium for an additional overnight equilibrium, for 18±3 hours. Equilibration medium was replaced with fresh medium before dosing.
Justification for test system used:
The EpiDerm™ Skin Model closely parallels human skin, thus providing a useful in vitro means to assess dermal irritancy and toxicology
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on test system:
EpiDerm™ Tissue SamplesEpiDerm™ tissues, Lot No. 27646 Kits I and J, were received from MatTek on 12 Dec 2017, and Lot No. 27654 Kits O and P, were received from MatTek on 19 Dec 2017 All tissues were refrigerated at 2-8°C upon receipt. Before use, the tissues were incubated (37±1°C, 5±1% CO2) with assay medium (MatTek) for a one-hour equilibration. The tissues were then moved to new wells with fresh medium for an additional overnight equilibrium, for 18±3 hours. Equilibration medium was replaced with fresh medium before dosing.Mesh CompatibilityFive of the test articles supplied were liquids. These test articles were assessed for compatibility with pre-cut nylon mesh supplied with the tissues. The mesh was placed on a slide and 30 μl of a liquid test articles or PBS (negative control) were applied. After 60 minutes of exposure, the mesh was checked microscopically. If no damage or other interaction was observed, indicating that the mesh was compatible with the test article, the mesh was used as a spreading aid.Tissue Viability (MTT Reduction)At the end of the incubation period, each EpiDerm™ tissue was rinsed with PBS and transferred to a 24-well plate containing 300 μl of MTT solution (1 mg/ml MTT in DMEM). The tissues were then returned to the incubator for a three-hour MTT incubation period. Following the MTT incubation period, each EpiDerm™ tissue was rinsed with PBS and then treated with 2.0 ml of extractant solution (isopropanol) per well for at least two hours, with shaking, at room temperature. Two aliquots of the extracted MTT formazan were measured at 540 nm using a plate reader (μQuant Plate Reader, Bio-Tek Instruments, Winooski, VT).For several tissues, the test article had stained the tissues. Therefore, the tissues were extracted with only 1.0 ml, allowing extraction to occur only through the bottom of the insert. After the extraction period, the tissue insert was removed and discarded and 1.0 ml of extraction solution were added to each well, bringing the volume to a total of 2.0 ml.Quality ControlsThe assay meets the acceptance criteria if the mean OD540 of the negative control tissues is between 1.0 and 2.5, inclusive, and the mean viability of positive control tissues, expressed as percentage of the negative control tissues, is at least 20%. In addition, the standard deviation (SD) calculated from individual percent tissue viabilities of the three identically-treated replicates must be less than 18%.Note: Chemicals that provide tissue viabilities in a range of 30% to 70% may provide high SD. If the high SD (above acceptance limits) is typical for the chemical and the classification of the chemical is consistent in all independent runs, MatTek recommends that this result be accepted, although it did not meet the Assay Acceptance Criterion.Analysis of DataSee Table 1 for Experimental Data. The mean absorbance value for each time point was calculated from the optical density (OD) of the duplicate samples and expressed as percent viability for each sample using the following formula:% viability = 100 X (OD sample/OD negative control)Skin Irritation PredictionAccording to the EU1,2 and GHS3 classification (R38 / Category 2 or no label), an irritant is predicted if the mean relative tissue viability of three individual tissues exposed to the test substance is 50% or less of the mean viability of the negative controls.In vitro result In vivo ClassificationMean tissue viability ≤ 50% Category 2Mean tissue viability > 50% Non-irritant (NI)Assessment of direct MTT reduction and assessment of coloring or staining materials was not performed. Therefore, it cannot be fully assessed if the test articles interfered with MTT viability measurements.Retention of DataUpon signing the final report, all raw data, supporting documentation and reports are submitted to the Archivist by the Study Director. The raw data are filed at MB Research by project number. The final report is filed at MB Research by Sponsor name and MB project number.All data generated during the conduct of this study will be archived at MB Research for at least one year from the date of the final report and optionally longer at additional cost. The Sponsor will be contacted in writing to determine final disposition of the records.Any remaining test article will be discarded upon submission of the report.Amendment to the ProtocolThere were no amendments to the protocol. See Appendix C for the protocol in its entiretyEvaluation of Test Article in the Cell Models:1. Cell system: Upon receipt, the MatTek EpiDerm™ tissue cultures were placed in 0.9 mL of fresh Maintenance medium (in a 6-well plate). The culture inserts are incubated for ~one hour. The tissues were then transferred to 6-well plates containing 0.9 mL fresh Maintenance medium and they were incubated overnight at ~37°C, 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator.2. Control and Test Article Exposures: On the day of dosing, the tissues are then removed from the incubator and the controls and the test article are applied topically to tissues by pipette. Tissues were exposed to controls and the test articles for one hour, with ~35 minutes in a 37°C, 5% CO2 humidified incubator and the remaining 25 minutes at room temperature.a) Controls30 µL of negative control DPBS, positive control 5% SDS was applied topically to the tissue and gently spread by placing a nylon mesh on the apical surface of each tissue, if necessary.b)Test ArticleFor solid test article, the tissues were moistened with 25 μL of ultrapure water to improve contact of the tissue surface with the test article. Approximately 25 mg of each test article was evenly applied to the apical surface of each tissue (n=3). All the tissues were placed into the ~37°C incubator with 5% CO2. The exposure times were approximately 1 hour, with ~35 minutes exposure in the incubator and ~25 minutes at room temperature. 3.Post-exposure treatmentAfter the 1 hour exposure, the tissues were rinsed 20 to 25 times with 1 mL of DPBS. The apical surface was gently blotted with a cotton swab. The tissues were placed in 0.9 mL of fresh Maintenance medium (6-well plate) for either 25 hours, 38 minutes and 23 seconds or for 24 hours, 10 minutes and 09 seconds (as there were numerous tissues, they had to be broken down into 2 sets to complete dosing in a timely manner). After this initial ~24 hour incubation, the tissues were placed in 6-well plates containing 0.9 mL fresh Maintenance medium and incubated for another 17 hours, 03 minutes and 34 seconds prior to performing the MTT assay, for a total of an approximately 42 hour post-exposure incubation.RECONSTRUCTED HUMAN EPIDERMIS (RHE) TISSUE- Model used: The EpiDerm™ 3 dimensional human tissue model- Tissue Lot number(s): 26459- Date of initiation of testing: 6/08/2017TEMPERATURE USED FOR TEST SYSTEM- Temperature used during treatment / exposure: 37°C- Temperature of post-treatment incubation (if applicable): 37°CREMOVAL OF TEST MATERIAL AND CONTROLS-Volume and number of washing steps: TwiceMTT DYE USED TO MEASURE TISSUE VIABILITY AFTER TREATMENT / EXPOSURE- MTT concentration: 300 µL MTT medium (1.0 mg/mL).- Incubation time: After 2 hours, 57 minute and 25 second MTT incubation- Spectrophotometer: Synergy H4 spectrophotometer - Wavelength: 570 nm- Filter: No data- Filter bandwidth: No data- Linear OD range of spectrophotometer: No dataNUMBER OF REPLICATE TISSUES: 3CALCULATIONS and STATISTICAL METHODSAll data were background subtracted before analysis. MTT data are presented as % viable compared to negative control. Data were generated as follows: MTT AssayBlanks:·        The optical density (OD) mean from all replicates for each plate (ODblank). Negative Controls (NC):Identity: Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS), Lot No. AC10239794Provided by:MatTekDate Received:12 Dec 2017 and 19 Dec 2017Expiration Date:18 Jul 2018Storage:Room temperature and humidityDescription:Clear colorless liquidSample Preparation:Used as receivedPositive Control (PC):Identity: 5% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS), Lot No. 071817MABProvided by:MatTekDate Received:12 Dec 2017 and 19 Dec 2017Expiration Date:18 Jul 2018Storage:Room temperature and humidityDescription:Clear colorless liquidSample Preparation:Used as received- Assay quality controls- Negative Controls (NC)The Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) was used as a NC. The assay passed all acceptance criteria if the ODs of the negative control exposed tissues were between ≥0.8 and ≤2.8.  - Positive Controls (PC)5% solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate was used as a PC. The assay is meeting the acceptance criteria if the viability of the PC is ≤20% of the negative control.   - Standard Deviation (SD)The standard deviation (SD) calculated from individual percent tissue viabilities of the test article exposed replicates was ≤18.
Control samples:
yes, concurrent negative control
yes, concurrent positive control
Amount/concentration applied:
TEST MATERIAL- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): 25 mg - Concentration (if solution): neat (undiluted)VEHICLE (Not used)- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit): none- Concentration (if solution): none- Lot/batch no. (if required): none- Purity: noneNEGATIVE CONTROL- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight): 30 µL- Concentration (if solution): neatPOSITIVE CONTROL- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight): 30 µL- Concentration (if solution): 5% solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Tissues will be topically exposed to the test article and control articles for 60 minutes.
Duration of post-treatment incubation (if applicable):
After dosing, the tissues will be returned to the incubator for 35 ±1 minute, and then returned to the sterile hood for the remainder of the 60-minute exposure period.
Number of replicates:
All treatments with test articles and controls will be dosed in triplicate EpiDerm™ tissues.
Irritation / corrosion parameter:
% tissue viability
Run / experiment:
Run 1
Value:
91.7
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Other effects / acceptance of results:
All treatments with test articles and controls will be dosed in triplicate EpiDerm™ tissues.In vitro result In vivo ClassificationMean tissue viability ≤ 50% Category 2Mean tissue viability > 50% Non-irritant

Test and Control Article Identity

 

Tissue Viability

Irritancy Classification

Mean

Aluminium tristearate, CAS No. 637-12-7

91.7

Non-Irritant

Interpretation of results:
other: not irritating
Conclusions:
The dermal irritation potential of test article was determined according to the OECD 439 test guideline followed for this study. The Mean % tissue viability compared to negative control (n=3) of Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was determined to be 91.7%. Thus, Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was considered to be not irritating/irritating to the human skin.
Executive summary:

The dermal irritation potential of test article was determined according to the OECD 439 In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method”. The MatTek EpiDerm™ model was used to assess the potential dermal irritation of the test article by determining the viability of the tissues following exposure to the test article via MTT. The objective of this study was to assess the dermal irritation potential of test article Tissues were exposed to test article and controls for ~one hour, followed by a 42 hour post-exposure recovery period. The viability of each tissue was determined by MTT assay. 

 

The MTT data shows that the assay quality controls were met. The mean tissue viabilities for the Positive control, Methyl acetate were 6.5%, 10.7% respectively in the first and second run, whereas the tissue viabilities of the negative control, Tissue culture water remained at 100% in the both the runs.

The Mean % tissue viability compared to negative control (n=3) of Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was determined to be 91.7%.

Hence, under the experimental test conditions it was concluded that Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was considered to be not irritating to the human skin and being classified as “Not Classified'' as per CLP Regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Eye irritation

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
data is from OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 and the QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: predicted data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction was done using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):Aluminium tristearate- Molecular formula : C18H36O2.1/3Al- Molecular weight: 877.3995 g/mol- Substance type: Organic- Physical state: Solid
Species:
rabbit
Strain:
Himalayan
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
no data available
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
not specified
Amount / concentration applied:
100 mg
Duration of treatment / exposure:
1 hour
Observation period (in vivo):
72 hours
Duration of post- treatment incubation (in vitro):
no data available
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3 rabbits
Details on study design:
no data available
Other effects / acceptance of results:
no data available
Irritation parameter:
overall irritation score
Basis:
mean
Time point:
72 h
Score:
0
Reversibility:
not specified
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation
Irritant / corrosive response data:
no irritation observed

Estimation method: Takes mode value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e") and("f" and(not "g")) ) and("h" and(not "i")) ) and("j" and(not "k")) ) and("l" and(not "m")) ) and("n" and(not "o")) ) and("p" and(not "q")) ) and "r") and("s" and(not "t")) ) and "u") and("v" and(not "w")) ) and("x" and(not "y")) ) and("z" and "aa") )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Anionic Surfactants by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aliphatic attach [-COOH] AND Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] AND Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid AND Carboxylic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> Thiols OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA >> Organic Peroxy Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium ion formation >> Alpha-Haloethers OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitrophenols, Nitrophenyl Ethers and Nitrobenzoic Acids OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Haloalkane Derivatives with Labile Halogen OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Alkylphosphates, Alkylthiophosphates and Alkylphosphonates OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3-carbon atom >> Alpha-Haloethers by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Benzylamines-Acylation OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Furans OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated esters OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethanolamines (including morpholine) OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethylenediamines (including piperazine) OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic nitro OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not possible to classify according to these rules by DPRA Cysteine peptide depletion

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as High reactive OR High reactive >> Organic disulfides by DPRA Cysteine peptide depletion

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, non cyclic structure by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, without OH or NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, NH2 group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Ionic interaction OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates OR Ionic interaction >> Electrostatic interaction of tetraalkylamonium ion with protein carboxylates >> Tetraalkylammonium ions OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds >> Aldehydes by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not possible to classify according to these rules (GSH) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Highly reactive (GSH) OR Highly reactive (GSH) >> Furamates (MA) OR Moderately reactive (GSH) OR Moderately reactive (GSH) >> Alkyl 2-alkenoates (MA) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No superfragment by Superfragments ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated acids and esters OR AN2 >> Michael addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated acids and esters >> alpha, beta - Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids and Esters by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Not bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Alkane branched with quaternary carbon OR Alkene OR Allyl OR Cobalt, salt OR Isopropyl OR tert-Butyl by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Carcinogenicity (genotox and nongenotox) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary:The target chemical should be classified as Structural alert for nongenotoxic carcinogenicity OR Substituted n-alkylcarboxylic acids (Nongenotox) by Carcinogenicity (genotox and nongenotox) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 6.12

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 9.65

Interpretation of results:
other: not irritating
Conclusions:
Aluminum tristearate was estimated to be not irritating to the eyes of Himalayan rabbits.
Executive summary:

The ocular irritation potential of Aluminum tristearate was estimated using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 with logPow as the primary descriptor.

Aluminum tristearate was estimated to be not irritating to the eyes of Himalayan rabbits.

On the basis of the estimated results, Aluminum tristearate can be considered to be not irritating to eyes and can be classified under the category “Not Classified” as per CLP regulation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not irritating)

Respiratory irritation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Skin Irritation:

In different studies, Aluminum tristearate has been investigated for potential for dermal irritation to a greater or lesser extent. The studies are based on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with its functionally similar read across substances, Calcium Stearate (CAS: 1592-23-0) and Zinc Stearate (CAS: 557-05-1).

The dermal irritation potential of test article was determined according to the OECD 439 In Vitro Skin Irritation: Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method”. The MatTek EpiDerm™ model was used to assess the potential dermal irritation of the test article by determining the viability of the tissues following exposure to the test article via MTT. The objective of this study was to assess the dermal irritation potential of test article Tissues were exposed to test article and controls for ~one hour, followed by a 42 hour post-exposure recovery period. The viability of each tissue was determined by MTT assay. 

 

The MTT data shows that the assay quality controls were met. The mean tissue viabilities for the Positive control, Methyl acetate were 6.5%, 10.7% respectively in the first and second run, whereas the tissue viabilities of the negative control, Tissue culture water remained at 100% in the both the runs.

The Mean % tissue viability compared to negative control (n=3) of Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was determined to be 91.7%.

Hence, under the experimental test conditions it was concluded that Aluminium tristearate[CAS: 637-12-7] was considered to be not irritating to the human skin and being classified as “Not Classified'' as per CLP Regulation.

This was supported by the experimental study summarized in U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, submitted on March 4, 1986, for the functionally similar chemical Calcium Stearate (CAS: 1592-23-0).Calcium stearate was considered to be not irritating to rat’s skin.

These were also supported by the various experimental studies summarized in Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 2 (1982), p. 143-177, for the functionally similar chemical Zinc Stearate (CAS: 557-05-1).

Zinc stearate was applied as 10% in eye shadow formulation to the skin of 6 rabbits (duration of exposure not specified) and the effects were observed. The Primary Irritation Index(PII) for Zince stearate when applied as 10% in eye shadow formulation was 0.0 Based on the PII, zinc stearate can be considered not irritating to skin.

Another study was performed on 6 albino rabbits according to Draize method.100% zinc stearate was applied under occlusive conditions to intact and abraded skin of rabbits for 24 hours. The reactions observed were scored after 24 hours exposure according to Draize method. The Primary Irritation Index(PII) for Zinc stearate after 24 hours exposure was 0.0. Based on the PII, Zinc stearate can be considered not irritating to skin.

The dermal corrosion potential of Zinc stearate was assessed in 6 albino rabbits according to 49 CFR 173.240(a)(1) guidelines.100% zinc stearate was applied under occlusive conditions to intact skin of rabbits for 4 hours. The reactions observed were scored after 4 hours exposure according to Draize method. The Primary Irritation Index(PII) for Zinc stearate after 4 hours exposure was 0.0.Based on the PII, Zinc stearate can be considered not irritating to skin.

These results are further supported by the experimental study summarized in European Chemicals Bureau; Risk Assessment Report on Zinc Distearate, CAS-No.: 557-05-1, 91051-01-3. EINECS-No.: 209-151-9, 293-049-4. Part II - Human Health p.43 (2008), for the functionally similar chemical Zinc Stearate (CAS: 557-05-1).

500 mg zinc distearate (100%) was applied under occlusive conditions to the abraded and intact skin of 6 rabbits for 24 hours. The effects were observed for 24 hours. No signs of irritation were observed after 24 hours dermal exposure to 500 mg zinc stearate Hence zinc stearate was considered not irritating to rabbit skin.

Based on the available data for the target as well as read across substances and applying the weight of evidence approach,Aluminum tristearate was not irritating to skin.Comparing the above annotations with the criteria of CLP regulation, test chemical can be classified under the category “Not Classified”

 

Eye Irritation:

In different studies, Aluminum tristearate has been investigated for potential for ocular irritation to a greater or lesser extent. The studies are based on in vivo experiments in rabbits along with predicted data for target chemical and its functionally similar read across substances, Calcium Stearate (CAS: 1592-23-0) and Zinc Stearate (CAS: 557-05-1). The predicted data using the OECD QSAR toolbox has also been compared with the experimental data.

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the ocular irritation potential was estimated for Aluminum tristearate. Aluminum tristearatewas estimated to be not irritating to the eyes of Himalayan rabbits.

This was supported by the experimental study summarized in U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, submitted on March 4, 1986, for the functionally similar chemical Calcium Stearate (CAS: 1592-23-0).Calcium stearate was considered to be not irritating to mouse eyes.

These were also supported by the various experimental studies summarized in Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 2 (1982), p. 143-177, for the functionally similar chemical Zinc Stearate (CAS: 557-05-1).

Zinc stearate was applied as 10% in eye shadow formulation to the eyes of 6 rabbits (duration of exposure not specified) and the effects were observed.The overall irritation score of zinc distearate was 0 in all animals at 24, 48, and 72 hrs. Based on the overall irritation score, Zinc stearate can be considered not irritating to eyes.

Another study was performed on 6 albino rabbits according to Draize method.100% zinc stearate was instilled into the eyes of rabbits and the eyes remained unwashed. The reactions observed were scored after 1,2,3 days according to Draize method. The Primary Irritation Index(PII) for Zinc stearate after 1,2 and 3 days of exposure was 0.0. Based on the PII, Zinc stearate can be considered not irritating to eyes.

Based on the available data for the target as well as read across substances and applying the weight of evidence approach,Aluminum tristearate was not irritating to eyes.Comparing the above annotations with the criteria of CLP regulation, test chemical can be classified under the category “Not Classified”

Justification for classification or non-classification

Available data for Aluminum tristearate suggests that it is not likely to cause any irritation to eyes and skin.

Aluminum tristearate was considered to be not irritating to skin and eyes, and can be classified under the category “Not Classified” as per CLP regulation.

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