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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of Potassium phthalimide (CAS no. 1074 -82 -4) is predicted using QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017). Test substance undergoes 29.96% degradation by CO2 evolution parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical Potassium phthalimide was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound Potassium phthalimide (CAS No. 1074 -82 -4). If released in to the environment, 19.1% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.118%), indicates that Potassium phthalimide is not persistent in nature.   

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of Potassium phthalimide (CAS No. 1074 -82 -4) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 80.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of Potassium phthalimide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment:

The estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for Potassium phthalimide is 3.162 L/kg wet-wt which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000.Thus it is concluded that Potassium phthalimide is not expected to bio accumulate in fish and in the food chain.

Adsorption / desorption:

The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge N-potassium phthalimide(CAS No.1074-82-4) was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were having Koc value ranging from 1.25 to 4.09. The Log Koc value was found to be 1.855 ± 0.001at 25°C.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

In different studies, Potassium phthalimide (CAS No. 1074 -82 -4) has been investigated for potential for biodegradation to a greater or lesser extent. These include 2 predicted data for the target compound Potassium phthalimide and the 1 study (from authoritative database) for its closest read across substance with logKow as the primary descriptor.

 

In a predicted data done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical Potassium phthalimide (CAS no. 1074 -82 -4) was estimated. Test substance undergoes 29.96% degradation by CO2 evolution parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical Potassium phthalimide was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

Another prediction was done using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) for estimating the biodegradation potential of the test compound Potassium phthalimide (CAS no. 1074 -82 -4)in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that Potassium phthalimide is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In an additional supporting weight of evidence studyof read acrosssubstance1,2,3,6-Tetrahydrophthalimide (CAS no. 85-40-5)from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2016), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days forevaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydrophthalimide. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. The percentage degradation of read across substance1,2,3,6-Tetrahydrophthalimidewas determined to be0, 3 and 8% degradation by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter in 28 days, respectively.Thus, based on percentage degradation,1,2,3,6-Tetrahydrophthalimidewas considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical Potassium phthalimide (from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK), it can be concluded that the test substance Potassium phthalimide can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound Potassium phthalimide (CAS No. 1074 -82 -4). If released in to the environment, 19.1% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.118%), indicates that Potassium phthalimide is not persistent in nature.   

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of Potassium phthalimide (CAS No. 1074 -82 -4) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 80.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of Potassium phthalimide in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of Potassium phthalimide, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance Potassium phthalimide can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment:

Three studies including Predicted data and Experimental result of Bioaccumulation endpoint for the target chemical Potassium phthalimide (Cas no. 1074-82-4) and its read across chemical which is structurally similar to target were reviewed to summarize as follows:  

 

First study from prediction program EPI suite 2017 using BCFBAF model (v3.01), the Bioaccumulation factor (BCF) was predicted to be 3.162 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg.C for target Potassium phthalimide.

 

Similarly another predicted model PBT profiler; 2017 indicate that the Bioaccumulation factor (BCF) was predicted to be 3.2 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg.C for Potassium phthalimide.

 

And last study from HSDB database; 2017 for the read across chemical i.e Phthalimide (Cas no. 85-41-6) indicated that a BCF value of 4.4 was calculated for phthalimide(SRC), using an experimental log Kow of 1.15 and a recommended regression derived equation. This BCF value suggests that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will not be an important fate process.

 

All above result for bioaccumulation factor from target and read across study result is in the range of 3.162 -4.4 (L/kg wet-wt or dimensionless).

Thus based on the available BCF range concluded that the test substance chemical Potassium phthalimide (Cas no. 1074-82-4) is non Bioaccumulative in aquatic environment.

Adsorption / desorption:

Three studies including experimental reports and Predicted model data of adsorption endpoint for the target chemical Potassium phthalimide (Cas no. 1074-82-4) with structurally similar read across were reviewed to summarize as follows:  

 

First experimental study by UERL laboratory;2017 suggest that the adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge N-potassium phthalimide(CAS No.1074-82-4) was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the test substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were having Koc value ranging from 1.25 to 4.09. The Log Koc value was found to be 1.855 ± 0.001at 25°C.

Above result supported by predicted model EPI suite 2017 indicate the soil adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of chemical Potassium phthalimide (Cas no. 1074-82-4) is estimated to be 109.2L/kg (log KOC = 2.038) by means of MCI method at 25 deg.C, indicating that it is has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to groundwater.

And supporting data from HSDB database; 2017 for the read across chemical Phthalimide (Cas no. 85-41-6) indicated the Koc is estimated as approximately 100, using an experimental log Kow of 1.15 and a regression derived equation.This estimated Koc value suggests that phthalimide should have moderate to high mobility in soil.

Thus based on the above all available studies it is concluded that the test substance Potassium phthalimide (Cas no. 1074-82-4) has moderate to high mobility in soil/sediment.

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