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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Potassium phthalimide (IUPAC name:potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation system. Potassium phthalimide (IUPAC name:potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide) is predicted to not induce mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation system and hence is to not likely classify for gene mutation in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of the test material: Potassium phthalimide
- IUPAC name: potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide
- Molecular formula: C8H5NO2K
- Molecular Weight: 185.223 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Smiles: c12c(C(=O)[NH-]C1=O)cccc2.[K+]
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle / solvent:
No data
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
The plates were observed for a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No data

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and ("l" and ( not "m") )  )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and "q" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Imides (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Fused saturated heterocycles AND Imide by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Fused saturated heterocycles AND Imide AND Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Amide, aromatic attach [-C(=O)N] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Nitrogen, two or tree olefinic attach [>N-] AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anion AND Aromatic compound AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Cation AND Heterocyclic compound by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Acyl Halides OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Acyl Halides >> 1,1-Dihaloalkanes OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Benzylamines-Acylation OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Furans OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> 5-alkoxyindoles OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinones OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethanolamines (including morpholine) OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic nitro OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic phenylureas OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary (unsaturated) heterocyclic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic nitro OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related >> Aziridines OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation >> Mustards OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> Generation of ROS by glutathione depletion (indirect) >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Haloalkanes Containing Heteroatom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Carbamates  OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Activated haloalkanes  OR SNVinyl OR SNVinyl >> SNVinyl at a vinylic (sp2) carbon atom OR SNVinyl >> SNVinyl at a vinylic (sp2) carbon atom >> Vinyl type compounds with electron withdrawing groups  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Thiocarbamates/Sulfides (Hepatotoxicity) No rank by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -1.19

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 1.04

Conclusions:
Potassium phthalimide is predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Potassium phthalimide (IUPAC name:potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation system. Potassium phthalimide (IUPAC name:potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide) is predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene toxicity in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemicals have been reviewed and summarized to determine the mutagenic nature of Potassium Phthalimide:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Potassium phthalimide (IUPAC name:potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation system and strain TA1535 without S9 metabolic activation system. Potassium phthalimide is predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 with S9 metabolic activation system and strain TA1535 without S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely classify for gene mutation in vitro.

In a study for 90% structurally similar read across (Japan Chemicals Collaborative Knowledge Database, 2016) Bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed for phthalimide (RA CAS no 85 -41 -6; IUPAC name: 1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA. The study was performed using the preincubation protocol at dose levels of 0, 313, 625, 1250, 2500 or 5000 μg / plate with in incubation period of 48 hrs in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Dose range finding study was performed at dose levels of 5000, 1250, 313, 78.1, 19.5, 4.88, 1.22 μg / plate to decide the doses for the main study. No mutagenic response was noted for the test compound in the preliminary dose range finding study and the main study performed. Pthalimide failed to induce mutation in the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA with and without S9 mix and hence is not likely to classify for gene mutation in vitro.

Zeiger et al ( Environmental Mutagenesis, 1985) conducted gene mutation toxicity study for read across chemical with 60% structural similarity. Bacterial reverse mutation assay was performed for phthalamide (RA CAS no 88 -96 -0; IUPAC name: Phthalamide) using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 with and without rat and hamster liver S9 mix. The study was performed using the preincubation protocol at five dose levels up to 10 mg / plate with incubation period of 48 hrs in the presence and absence of S9 mix.The final dose level selection was based on the results of a preliminary range-finding study conducted with TA100 in the presence and absence of S-9. No mutagenic response was noted for the test compound in the preliminary dose range finding study and the main study performed. Phthalamide failed to induce mutation in theSalmonella typhimurium strain TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 in the presence and absence of rat and hamster liver S9 mix and hence is not likely to classify for gene mutation in vitro.

Based on the weight of evidence data summarized for the target chemical and its read across, Potassium phthalimide is not likely to exhibit genetic toxicity.

Thus, the chemical is not classified as a genetic toxicant as per as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the weight of evidence data summarized, Potassium phthalimide (CAS no 1074 -82 -4; IUPAC name: potassium 1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-ide

) is not likely to exhibit genetic toxicity. Thus, the chemical is not classified as a genetic toxicant as per as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

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