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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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In accordance with section 1 of REACH Annex XI, the study on long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates does not need to be conducted on iron oxides. Natural baseline iron concentrations in the aquatic environment are already much higher than the reported saturation concentrations of iron oxides in the environment. As such it is unlikely that iron ions released from iron oxides would inhibit growth and proliferation of aquatic plants, animals or microorganisms. Additionally, studies are presented with read across from soluble iron substances. For LEAD: The high quality chronic database contains freshwater toxicity data for 2 rotifer species (Philodina rapida; Brachionus calyciflorus), 1 insect (Chironomus tentans), 2 mollusc species (Lymnaea palustris; Lymnaea stagnalis) and 5 crustacean species (Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Diaphanosoma birgei, Alona rectangula). Chronic freshwater no-effect levels for dissolved lead for invertebrates were situated between 1.7 µg Pb/L (Lymnaea stagnalis; endpoint: growth) and 495.7 µg Pb/L (Ceriodaphnia dubia; endpoint: mortality). Chronic marine NOEC/L(E)C10 values are available for 2 echinoderms (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), 3 bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus trossolus, Crassostrea gigas) and 1 annelid (Neanthes arenaceodentata). No-effect levels for dissolved lead for marine invertebrates were situated between 9.2 µg Pb/L (Mytilus trossolus; endpoint: abnormalities) and 1409.6 µg Pb/L (Mytilus galloprovincialis; endpoint: mortality).

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