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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Methyl abietate (IUPAC name: methyl (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7- (propan-2-yl)- 1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. Methyl abietate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of the test material: Methyl abietate
- IUPAC name: methyl (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
- Molecular formula: C21H32O2
- Molecular weight: 316.4818 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Smiles: COC(=O)[C@]1(C)CCC[C@]2(C)[C@H]3CCC(=CC3=CC[C@@H]12)C(C)C
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle / solvent:
No data
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants per plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No data

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and ("l" and ( not "m") )  )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and "p" )  and "q" )  and "r" )  and "s" )  and ("t" and "u" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters (Chronic toxicity) AND Rosin by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkane, branched with tertiary carbon OR Allyl OR Carboxylic acid ester OR Cyclo conjugated system OR Cycloalkane OR Cycloalkene OR Fused unsaturated carbocycles OR Isopropyl OR Rosins by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkane, branched with tertiary carbon OR Allyl OR Carboxylic acid ester OR Isopropyl OR Overlapping groups OR Rosins by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] OR Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Ester, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)O] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Tertiary Carbon by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Carbonic acid derivative OR Carboxylic acid derivative OR Carboxylic acid ester by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation (indirect) or direct radical attack on DNA >> Organic Peroxy Compounds OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Formamides OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated esters OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related >> Sulfuranes by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized triple bond  OR Nucleophilic addition OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds >> Ketones OR Radical reactions OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation OR Radical reactions >> Free radical formation >> Hydroperoxides OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds OR Schiff base formation >> Schiff base formation with carbonyl compounds >> Aldehydes OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 reaction >> Isothiazolone derivatives  OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom >> Activated alkyl esters and thioesters  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not possible to classify according to these rules (GSH) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Highly reactive (GSH) OR Highly reactive (GSH) >> Furamates (MA) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Low (Class I) by Toxic hazard classification by Cramer (original) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkane, branched with tertiary carbon AND Allyl AND Carboxylic acid ester AND Isopropyl AND Overlapping groups AND Rosins by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Similarity boundary:Target: CC(C)C1CCC2C(C=1)=CCC1C2(C)CCCC1(C)C(=O)OC
Threshold=10%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 5.28

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 8.12

Conclusions:
Methyl abietate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Methyl abietate (IUPAC name: methyl (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7- (propan-2-yl)- 1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. Methyl abietate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation for the target chemical and data from read across chemicals have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of Methyl Abietate (IUPAC name: methyl (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate

). The studies are as mentioned below:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for Methyl abietate (IUPAC name: methyl (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7- (propan-2-yl)- 1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. Methyl abietate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Gene mutation toxicity was predicted for Methyl abietate using the battery approach from Danish QSAR database (2017). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in the Ames test. The end point for gene mutation has been modeled in the Danish QSAR using the three software systems Leadscope, CASE Ultra and SciQSAR. Based on predictions from these three systems, a fourth and overall battery prediction is made. The battery prediction is made using the so called Battery algorithm. With the battery approach it is in many cases possible to reduce “noise” from the individual model estimates and thereby improve accuracy and/or broaden the applicability domain. Gene mutation toxicity study as predicted by Danish QSAR forMethyl abietateis negative and hence the chemical is predicted to not classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In a study for 84% structurally and functionally simlar read across chemical, Seifried et al (Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2006) performed Ames mutagenicity test for abietic acid (RA CAS no 514 -10 -3; IUPAC name: (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(propan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a- decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid) to evaluate its genetoxic effects when exposed to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 with dose concentration of 0, 33-3333 µg/plate in plate incorporation assay. Based on the preliminary study conducted, the test compound was used at a five dose level from 0, 33-3333 µg/plate. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37±2 °C. Five doses of test chemical, together with the appropriate concurrent solvent and positive controls, were tested in triplicate on each tester strain without metabolic activation and also with activation by induced rat and hamster liver S9 preparations. For a test article to be considered positive, it had to induce at least a doubling (TA98, TA100, and TA1535) in the mean number of revertants per plate of at least one tester strain. This increase in the mean revertants per plate had to be accompanied by a dose response to increasing concentrations of the test chemical. Abietic acid did not induce gene mutation in the Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 activation system and hence the chemical is not likely to be a gene mutant.

Blevins and Taylor (Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 1982) performed Salmonella/microsome test (Spot test) to determine the mutagenic nature of structurally and functionally similar read across chemical isopropyl myristate (RA CAS no 110 -27 -0; IUPAC name: Isopropyl myristate). The study was performed using Salmonella typhimurium LT2 - hisTA98, hisTA100, hisTA1535, hisTA1537, and hisTA1538 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. The chemical as used at dose levels of 50µg/plate and the plates were incubated for 2 days. The plates were observed for a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate. Negative and positive control plates were also made with the test plates. The negative controls were used to determine the spontaneous reversion rate to prototrophy for each strain, and to determine the effect of the solvents on the reversion rates.Isopropyl myristate failed to induce mutation inSalmonella typhimurium LT2 - hisTA98, hisTA100, hisTA1535, hisTA1537, and hisTA1538 both in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the the data available for the target chemical and its read across, Methyl abietate dose not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the the data available for the target chemical and its read across, Methyl abietate (CAS no 127 -25 -3) dose not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

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