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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

short-term toxicity to birds: acute oral toxicity test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
significant methodological deficiencies
The study was conducted according to published methods, but not using any available guidelines or GLP. Minimal details on experimental methods and results provided.

Data source

Reference Type:
The Acute Oral Toxicity, Repellency, and Hazard Potential of 998 Chemicals to One or More Species of Wild and Domestic Birds
Schafer EW, WA Bowles, J Hurlbut
Bibliographic source:
Arch. Environm. Contam. Toxicol., 12:355-382

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Acute oral toxicity test of multiple chemicals in several avian species. The chemicals were suspended in propylene glycol, according to methods described by DeCino et al. (1966), Schafer (1972), and Schafer et al. (1967). Other dosing methods were occasionally used (pellets, gelatin capsules), but are not noted in the tables (Schafer, 1972).
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): o-phenylenediamine

Dose method:
Analytical monitoring:
not specified

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Coturnix coturnix

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables


CAS Registry number

Other Published LD50 (mg/kg) (no citation provided)

Coturnix LD50 (mg/kg)





The report presents a tabulated listing of the acute oral toxicity (LD50) of the 998 chemicals to one or more of the avian species (Redwing, Starling, Coturnix) plus the avian repellency values (R50) and the toxicity-repellency index for Redwings. Redwings were significantly more sensitive than Starlings (p = 0.001), and that Starlings and Coturnix were not different (p = 0.05). The difference in toxicological sensitivity between Redwings and Starlings was 2.1x and the difference between Coturnix and Redwings was 1.4x. Statistical comparisons of the correlation between Redwings LD50’s and R50’s were made to determine the validity of observations made over the past 20 years indicating that avian repellent activity appears to increase with increasing acute oral toxicity. Of the 998 chemicals tested, Redwing R50’s and LD50’s are presented for 836. Of the 836, R50 and LD50 values for 501 chemicals (60%) were both or greater than selected minimum activity levels (1.00% for R50 and 100 mg/kg or (90 mg/kg) for LD50), 84 (10.1%) were repellent at or below 1.00% but toxic above 100 mg/kg, 75 (8.9%) were toxic at or below 100 mg/kg but repellent above 1.00%, 41 (4.9%) were not usable and 135 (16.2%) possessed activity in the range (R50 ≤ 1.00%, LD50 ≤ 100 mg/kg) that could be used to examine the relationship between these two factors. However, neither Pearson nor Spearman correlation coefficients (0.33 and 0.43, respectively) showed any positive correlation between R50’s and LD50’s. Thus, the data indicated that gross acute toxicity, as defined by the LD50, is not positively related to gross repellency, as defined by the R50, at least over the small range examined.

The repellency/toxicity index or acute avian hazard index was calculated where one or both R50 and LD50 were known. Of the 223 chemicals for which definite index values could be calculated, 124 fell into the > 1.00 class, 47 into the ≥ 0.25 ≤ 1.00 class, and 52 in the < 0.25 class. This index appears to have great potential for predicting those chemicals that may cause acute avian poisoning episodes in the field.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

This study established an oral LD50 for o-phenylenediamine in Coturnix coturnix of 1000 mg/kg.
Executive summary:

This study established an oral LD50 for o-phenylenediamine in Coturnix coturnix of 1000 mg/kg.