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Description of key information

LD50 was estimated to be 2146.45mg/kg bw, when female wistar rats were exposed with Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3 and the QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: As mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction was done using OECD QSAR toolbox v3.3, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
other: not specified
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Sodium phenylacetate
- IUPAC name: Sodium phenylacetate
- Molecular formula: C8H8O2Na
- Molecular weight: 159.13 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1(ccccc1)CC(=O)[O-].[Na+]
- InChl: 1S/C8H8O2.Na/c9-8(10)6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7;/h1-5H,6H2,(H,9,10);/q;+1/p-1
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: No data
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
No data available
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on oral exposure:
No data available
Doses:
2146.45mg/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
No data available
Statistics:
No data available
Preliminary study:
No data available
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
2 146.45 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: 50% mortality was observed
Mortality:
50% mortality was observed
Clinical signs:
No data available
Body weight:
No data available
Gross pathology:
No data available
Other findings:
No data available

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: LD50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and ("o" and ( not "p") )  )  and "q" )  and "r" )  and ("s" and "t" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl OR Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl AND Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Carbonyl, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anion AND Aromatic compound AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid salt AND Cation by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Coumarins OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Coumarins OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Coumarins OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Acyl Halides OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at sulfur atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sulfur atom >> Sulfonyl Halides OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure OR Strong binder, NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Acyl transfer via nucleophilic addition reaction OR Acylation >> Acyl transfer via nucleophilic addition reaction >> Isocyanates, Isothiocyanates  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> (Thio)Acyl and (thio)carbamoyl halides and cyanides  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Azlactones and unsaturated lactone derivatives  OR Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Carbamates  OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis or thiolysis >> Activated aryl esters  OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation OR Acylation >> Ring opening acylation >> beta-Lactams  OR Michael Addition OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group OR Michael Addition >> Michael addition on conjugated systems with electron withdrawing group >> alpha,beta-Carbonyl compounds with polarized double bonds  OR Nucleophilic addition OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds OR Nucleophilic addition >> Addition to carbon-hetero double bonds >> Ketones OR Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Direct acting Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formation >> Direct acting Schiff base formers >> 1,2-Dicarbonyls and 1,3-Dicarbonyls  OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones  OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds OR SN2 >> Interchange reaction with sulphur containing compounds >> Thiols and disulfide compounds  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Activated haloalkanes  OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution on benzilyc carbon atom >> alpha-Activated benzyls  OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 Reaction at a sp3 carbon atom >> Activated alkyl esters and thioesters  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Azlactone by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not possible to classify according to these rules (GSH) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderately reactive (GSH) OR Moderately reactive (GSH) >> Alkyl 2-alkenoates (MA) by Protein binding potency

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by in vitro mutagenicity (Ames test) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic halogens OR Hydrazine by in vitro mutagenicity (Ames test) alerts by ISS

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 5 (Not possible to classify according to these rules) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Basesurface narcotics by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -4.76

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= -1.09

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Conclusions:
LD50 was estimated to be 2146.45mg/kg bw, when female wistar rats were exposed with Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.
Executive summary:

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute oral toxicity was estimated for Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5).LD50 was estimated to be 2146.45mg/kg bw, when female wistar rats were exposed with Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 146.45 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Data is Klimicsh 2 and from QSAR Toolbox 3.3. (2017)

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Acute oral toxicity

In different studies, Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) has been investigated for acute oral toxicity to a greater or lesser extent. Often are the studies based on in vivo experiments and estimated data in rodents, i.e. most commonly in rats for Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5). The predicted data using the OECD QSAR toolbox has also been compared with the experimental studies.

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute oral toxicity was estimated for Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5).LD50 was estimated to be 2146.45mg/kg bw, when female wistar rats were exposed with Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.

The experimental study given by FDA (Centre for drug evaluation and research pharmacological review application no 21-060, 2004).Acute oral toxicity study was done in rat using test material sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5).50% mortality was observed at dose in male: 3150mg/kg and female: 2860mg/kg body weight. HenceLD50 was considered to be in male: 3150mg/kg and female: 2860mg/kg body weight.When male and female rats were treated with sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.

Also in another experimental study given by FDA (Centre for drug evaluation and research pharmacological review application no 21-060, 2004).Acute oral toxicity study was done in mice using test material sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5).50% mortality was observed at dose in Male: 3970mg/kg and female: 3640mg/kg body weight. HenceLD50 was considered to be in Male: 3970mg/kg and female: 3640mg/kg body weight.When male and female mice were treated with sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) orally.

It is further supported by experimental study given by D.L.J Opydke (Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Pg. 139, 1979) on structurally similar read across substancebenzyl phenylacetate (102-16-9).Acute oral toxicity study was done in rat using test material benzyl phenylacetate (102-16-9).No mortality was observed at dose 5000mg/kg bw. Hence LD50 was considered to be >5000mg/kg body weight.When rats were treated with benzyl phenylacetate (102-16-9) orally.

 In another experimental study given by D.L.J Opydke (Food and Cosmetics Toxicology Volume 13, Issue 6, 1975, Pages 901-902) on structurally similar read across substancePhenylacetic acid (103-82-2). Acute oral toxicity study was done in rat using test material Phenylacetic acid (103-82-2). No mortality was observed at dose 5000mg/kg bw. Hence LD50 was considered to be >5000mg/kg body weight.When rats were treated with Phenylacetic acid (103-82-2) orally.

 Thus, based on the above studies and predictions on Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) and its read across substances, it can be concluded that LD50 value is 2146.45 mg/kg bw.Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) can be “Not classified” for acute oral toxicity.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP Sodium phenylacetate (114-70-5) can be “Not classified” for acute oral toxicity.