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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradability of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 16883 -16 -2) is predicted using QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017) with logKow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 0.74% degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). If released in to the environment, 16% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.494%), indicates that 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 83.1% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 9.256 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bio concentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption / desorption

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 559.3 L/kg (log Koc=2.7476)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various predicted data for the target compound 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883-16-2) and supporting weight of evidence studies for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In a prediction done by SSS (2017) using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with logKow as the primary descriptor, percentage biodegradability of test chemical 5-methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 16883-16-2) was estimated.Test substance undergoes 0.74% degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

In another prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compound 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 16883-16-2) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, HSDB, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014) and from secondary source (OECD SIDS, 1998) for the read across chemical 2-Phenylpropene (CAS no. 98-83-9),biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 2-Phenylpropene. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I) under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge (non-adapted) was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance 2-Phenylpropene was determined to 0% by using BOD parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2-Phenylpropene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 20 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene (CAS no. 25013-15-4) under aerobic conditions (HSDB, 2017). Domestic sewage (non-adapted) was used as a test inoculums for the study. The percentage degradation of test substance 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene was determined to 13% in the first 15 days and 32% degradation in between 15-20 days by using Test mat. analysis parameter. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 21-methyl-2-vinylbenzene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the read across chemical (1-bromoethenyl)benzene (CAS no. 98-81-7) from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017), biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance (1-bromoethenyl)benzene. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance (1-bromoethenyl)benzene was determined to 0 and 77% degradation by BOD and GC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation (0% by using BOD parameter), (1-bromoethenyl)benzene is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride(from OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 and EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK, HSDB & EnviChem and secondary source OECD SIDS), it can be concluded that the test substance 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloridecan be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound  5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). If released in to the environment, 16% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.494%), indicates that 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 83.1% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Various predicted data for the target compound 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883-16-2) and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across substance were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In aprediction done using the BCFBAF Program(v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 9.256 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C).

 

In an another prediction done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) moduleACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017), theBCF over the entire pH scale (pH 0 -14) of the test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 16883 -16 -2) was estimated to be 14.6.

 

Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of test chemical 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated using Chemspider database(ChemSpider, 2017). The bioconcentration factor of test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 26.95 at both pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively.

 

Another predicted data was estimated usingSciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017) was used for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride(CAS No. 16883-16-2). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 277 (at 25 deg C).

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 44.1 dimensionless . The predicted BCF result based on the 5 OECD principles.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017 and EnviChem, 2014) and from secondary source (OECD SIDS, 1998) for the read across chemical 2-Phenylpropene (CAS no. 98-83-9),bioaccumulation experiment was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpio for 8 weeks for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of chemical 2-Phenylpropene (CAS no. 98-83-9).The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test) and other guideline "Bioaccumulation test of a chemical substance in fish or shellfish" provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances", respectively at a temperature of 25°C.Cyprinus carpio was used as a test organism for the study. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study were 0.3mg/land 0.03 mg/l, respectively. Test chemical solution was prepared in Tween 80.Analytical method involve the recovery ratio: Test water: 1st concentration area: 89.4 %, 2nd concentration area : 81.8 %, Fish : 77.6%, - Limit of detection : 0.055 ppm. Range finding study involve the TLm (48 hr) 6.8 mg/l (w/v) on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes).The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of 2-Phenylpropene on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be in the range of 15-140 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.3 mg/l and 12-113 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.03 mg/l, respectively.

 

For the read across chemical (1-bromoethenyl)benzene (CAS no. 98-81-7), bioaccumulation study was conducted on test organism Cyprinus carpio for 35 days for evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of chemical (1-bromoethenyl)benzene (J-CHECK, 2017).The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)and other guideline "Bioaccumulation test of a chemical substance in fish or shellfish" provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances", respectively. Cyprinus carpio was used as a test organism for the study. Test chemical nominal conc. used for the study were 0.02mg/land 0.002mg/l, respectively. Test chemical solution was prepared in HCO-40.Analytical method involve the recovery ratio: Test water: 1st concentration area : 97.2 %, Fish : 83.9 %, - Limit of detection : Test water: 1st concentration area : 0.49 µg/l, 2nd concentration area : 0.049 µg/l, Fish : 17 ng/g. Range finding study involve the LC50 (96 hr) 2.22 mg/l on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes). Lipid content of the test organism Cyprinus carpio was determined to be2.23 and 2.98% at the start and end of exposure. The bioconcentration factor (BCF value) of substance(1-bromoethenyl)benzene on Cyprinus carpio was determined to be in the range of 54-157 L/Kg and 101 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.02 mg/l and 52-150 L/Kg and 102 L/Kg at a conc. of 0.002mg/l, respectively.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride(from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,  2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database J-CHECK & EnviChem and secondary source OECD SIDS), it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chlorideranges from 9.256 – 277 which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chlorideis not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Adsorption / desorption

Various predicted data for the target compound 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883-16-2) and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across substance were reviewed for the adsorption end point which are summarized as below:

 

In aprediction done using theKOCWIN Program(v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 559.3 L/kg (log Koc=2.7476)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 16883 -16 -2) was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program as Koc 237 (log Koc = 2.4 ± 1.0) at pH range 1-14 respectively(ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017). This Koc value indicates that the test substance 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride has a low sorption to soil and therefore have moderate migration potential to groundwater.

 

In an another prediction done by using ChemSpider Database (2017),the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride (CAS no. 16883 -16 -2) was estimated. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 367.77 (Log Koc = 2.5655) at pH 5.5 and 7.4, respectively. This Koc value indicates that the substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

Additional soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole-4 -carbonyl chloride (CAS No. 16883 -16 -2)was estimated using the SciFinder database (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017).The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 1950 (log Koc = 3.29) (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

From CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical), the adsorption coefficient i.e KOC for test substance 5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride was estimated to be 320 L/kg (log Koc = 2.505).The predicted KOC result based on the 5 OECD principles. This Koc value indicates that the substance 5 -methyl-3 -phenyl-1,2 -oxazole- 4 -carbonyl chloride has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for the read across chemical 2-Phenylpropene (CAS no. 98-83-9),adsorption experiment was conducted for estimating the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of read across chemical 2-Phenylpropene. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using a logKow of 3.48 and a regression derived equation. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of substance 2-Phenylpropene was estimated to be 1900 (Log Koc = 3.278). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Phenylpropene has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

For the read across chemical 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene (CAS no. 25013-15-4),adsorption study was conducted for estimating the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of read across chemical 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene (HSDB, 2017). The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using astructure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of substance 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene was estimated to be 716 (Log Koc = 2.854). This Koc value indicates that the substance 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

Another adsorption study from secondary source (HPVIS, 2017) was conducted for estimating the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of the same read across chemical 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene (CAS no. 25013-15-4). The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using a measured water solubility of 89 mg/l at 25°C and a linear regression equation. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of substance 1-methyl-2-vinyl benzene was estimated to be 370 (Log Koc = 2.568). This Koc value indicates that the substance 1-methyl-2-vinylbenzene has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

 

On the basis of above overall results for target chemical5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloride(from EPI suite, ACD labs,ChemSpider, SciFinder database and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard,2017) and for its read across substance (from authoritative database HSDB, 2017 and secondary source HPVIS, 2017), it can be concluded that the Koc value of test substance5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chlorideranges from237–1950indicating that the test chemical5-methyl-3-phenyl-1,2-oxazole-4-carbonyl chloridehas a low to moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate to slow migration potential to ground water.