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The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable publication which meets basic scientific principles

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
Thresholds for Odor and Nasal Pungency
Cometto-Muniz JE and Cain WS
Bibliographic source:
Physiol Behav 48. pp. 719-725
Reference Type:
secondary source
An analysis of nasal irritation thresholds using a new solvation equation
Abraham MH et al.
Bibliographic source:
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 31(1), 71-76

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Odor threshold
Endpoint addressed:
respiratory irritation
Test guideline
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:


Details on study design:
Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects. The stimuli comprised the first eight members of the series of n-aliphatic alcohols, phenyl ethyl alcohol, pyridine, and menthol.
Details on exposure:
TYPE OF EXPOSURE: inhalation

TYPE OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT: Personal sampling with squeeze and sniff bottles (Cain, 1989)

EXPOSURE LEVELS: 0.07, 0.1, 0.8, 3.2, 4, 21.6, 67.5% in mineral oil; tested by GC

EXPOSURE PERIOD: short-term (about 2-sec) exposures

PROCEDURE: participant had to choose the stronger of two stimuli - substance diluation and control

Results and discussion

Average nasal pungency threshold (± SD): 1603 ± 1.2 ppm equivalent to 5.86 mg/L.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Results showed that anosmics could detect, via pungency, all but phenyl ethyl alcohol reliably. In the aliphatic series, both odor and pungency thresholds declined with chain length in a way that implied dependence of both in part on phase distribution in the mucosa. Odor thresholds, however, declined more rapidly than pungency thresholds: the ratio of anosmics threshold/normosmics threshold increased from 23 for methanol to 10,000 for 1-octanol. The outcome of a scaling experiment employing normosmic subjects indicated that, with the exception of methanol and ethanol, pungency arose when perceived intensity reached a narrowly tuned criterion level. When thresholds were expressed as percentages of saturated vapour, an index of thermodynamic activity, thereby accounting for differences in solubility and in phase distribution in the mucosa among the various stimuli, both odor and pungency thresholds depicted a striking constancy across stimuli.

Applicant's summary and conclusion