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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR toolbox version.3.3 and QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Predicted data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary discriptors.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (IUPAC name): Cinnamyl formate
- Common name: 3-Phenylallyl formate
- Molecular formula: C10H10O2
- Molecular weight: 162.187 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1(\C=C\COC=O)ccccc1
- InChl: 1S/C10H10O2/c11-9-12-8-4-7-10-5-2-1-3-6-10/h1-7,9H,8H2/b7-4+
- Substance type: Organic
-physical state: liquid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
228.17 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: not toxic

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: EC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" )  and "d" )  and "e" )  and "f" )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and ("o" and ( not "p") )  )  and "q" )  and ("r" and ( not "s") )  )  and ("t" and ( not "u") )  )  and ("v" and ( not "w") )  )  and ("x" and ( not "y") )  )  and ("z" and ( not "aa") )  )  and ("ab" and ( not "ac") )  )  and ("ad" and ( not "ae") )  )  and "af" )  and ("ag" and "ah" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Formic acid and formates by OECD HPV Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 3 (unspecific reactivity) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified)

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No superfragment by Superfragments ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 3 (unspecific reactivity) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halo Ester OR Surfactants-Nonionic OR Vinyl/Allyl Esters by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic-H AND Benzene AND -C=CH  [alkenyl hydrogen] AND -CH2-  [linear] AND Ester   [-C(=O)-O-C] AND Unsubstituted phenyl group (C6H5-) by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkyl substituent on aromatic ring by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic-H AND Benzene AND -C=CH  [alkenyl hydrogen] AND -CH2-  [linear] AND Ester   [-C(=O)-O-C] AND Unsubstituted phenyl group (C6H5-) by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic ether  [-O-aromatic carbon] by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic-H AND Benzene AND -C=CH  [alkenyl hydrogen] AND -CH2-  [linear] AND Ester   [-C(=O)-O-C] AND Unsubstituted phenyl group (C6H5-) by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Carbon with 4 single bonds & no hydrogens by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic-H AND Benzene AND -C=CH  [alkenyl hydrogen] AND -CH2-  [linear] AND Ester   [-C(=O)-O-C] AND Unsubstituted phenyl group (C6H5-) by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as -CH -  [cyclic] by Bioaccumulation - metabolism alerts

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 14 - Carbon C AND Group 16 - Oxygen O by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Group 15 - Nitrogen N by Chemical elements

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkene AND Allyl AND Aryl AND Carboxylic acid ester by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acrylate by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkene AND Allyl AND Aryl AND Carboxylic acid ester by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Ketone by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Allyl AND Aryl AND Carboxylic acid ester AND Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Isopropyl by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Ester, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)O] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "ab"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] AND Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Ester, aliphatic attach [-C(=O)O] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "ac"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Olefinic carbon [=CH2] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "ad"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Phys-chem EPISUITE by Database Affiliation

Domain logical expression index: "ae"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bacterial mutagenicity ISSSTY by Database Affiliation

Domain logical expression index: "af"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as days - weeks by Biodeg ultimate (Biowin 3) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "ag"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 0.187

Domain logical expression index: "ah"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 2.83

Conclusions:
Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic algae predicted for (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4). Effect concentration i.e EC50 value estimated to be 228.17 mg/l for algae for 72 hrs duration. It can be concluded that the (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) IS likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae, hence it can be considered to be “not classified” as per the CLP classification criteria for aquatic environment
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic algae predicted for (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4). Effect concentration i.e EC50 value estimated to be 228.17 mg/l for algae for 72 hrs duration. It can be concluded that the (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) IS likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae, hence it can be considered to benot classifiedas per the CLP classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic algae predicted for (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4). Effect concentration i.e EC50 value estimated to be 228.17 mg/l for algae for 72 hrs duration. It can be concluded that the (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) IS likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae, hence it can be considered to benot classifiedas per the CLP classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
228.17 mg/L

Additional information

Following studies include the predicted data and experimental study for the target chemical and structurally similar read across to conclude the toxicity extent of Cinnamyl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) towards aquatic algae is summarized as follows:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic algae predicted for (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4). Effect concentration i.e EC50 value estimated to be 228.17 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 72 hrs duration. It can be concluded that the (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) IS likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae, hence it can be considered to benot classifiedas per the CLP classification criteria for aquatic environment.

The predicted results for target assisted by experimental data of read across2-phenylethyl propanoate; Propyl acetate (CAS:109-60-4)

from the publication Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2006, suggests that the No-observable-effect-concentration NOEC to Scenedesmus subspicatus for Propyl acetate is 250 mg/L. It can be concluded from the value that the Propyl acetate is not toxic to the aquatic algae and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification criteria for aquatic environment.

 

Further it is supported by the another experimental study of structurally similar read across Maleic anhydride (CAS: 108-31-6) froom secondary source also suggests that theeffective concentration EC50 to 50% of Haematococcus pluvial in 4h is 190 mg/L. inhibition of O2 production was measured during the test. It can be concluded from the value that the Maleic anhydride is not toxic to the aquatic algae and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 190 mg/l to 228.17 mg/l give the conclusion that test substance Cinnamyl formate (CAS: 104-65-4) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae at environmentally relevant concentrations and applying weight of evidence approach it can be considered to benot classifiedas per the CLP classification criteria.