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Environmental fate & pathways

Additional information on environmental fate and behaviour

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additional information on environmental fate and behaviour
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
No data
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study was conducted prior to GLP and test guidelines, but sufficient data is available for interpretation of results.
Cross-referenceopen allclose all
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Samples of DOWFAX* 2A1 surfactant and DOWFAX 3B2 surfactant were exposed to activated sludge, simulating a wastewater treatment plant to check the toxicity of their metabolites.
GLP compliance:
Type of study / information:
Toxicity of metabolites

Test material

Details on test material:
Dowfax 2A1
Reference: lot# 01187

Dowfax 3B2
Source: prepared in the lab by R.C. Marriott, 1-121-1

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

The effluent containing metabolites of either DOWFAX 2A1 surfactant or DOWFAX 3B2 surfactant shows no significant toxicity to fish or Daphnia.

Toxicity (Percent alive) Blank Dowfax 2A1 Dowfax 3B2

Fathead (96 hr) 90 100 90

Daphnia (48 hr)

Effluent 100% 93 100 96

Effluent 56% 100 100 100

Effluent 33% 100 100 100

MBAS -- 4.7 mg/L 4.5 mg/L

TOD 130 mg/L 168 mg/L 181 mg/L

pH 8.30 8.35 8.25

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The effluent containing metabolites of either DOWFAX 2A1 surfactant or DOWFAX 3B2 surfactant shows no significant toxicity to fish or Daphnia.
Executive summary:

A solution of DOWFAX* 2A1, generally considered to be nonbiodegradable, is biologically transformed to a much less fish toxic material under conditions simulating a biological wastewater treatment plant. The effluent of this unit containing metabolites of DOWFAX 2A1 did not show any significant toxicity to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque) in 96 hours or to the water flea (Daphnia magna Straus) in 48 hours. A semicontinuous activated sludge unit was acclimated to 30 mg/L of DOWFAX 2A1 in its feed over a period of 8 days following the procedures of the Soap and Detergent Association.. Previous work using carbon-14 labeled surfactant indicated only 5% of the material was adsorbed on the sludge. The LC50 for DOWFAX 2A1 with fathead minnows was previously determined at about 4 mg/L. The 48-hour LC50 value for Daphnia is less than 2 mg/L. Therefore, the DOWFAX 2A1 must have been degraded to a material much less toxic. Analysis by the methylene blue method indicated 6 mg/L surfactant remaining in solution. Apparently, the metabolites react positively as surfactant with methylene blue, the standard

analytical procedure specified by the SDA.

A similar experiment with DOWFAX 3B2 at 30 mg/L also indicated no significant toxicity of the effluent. to either fathead minnows or Daphnia: magna. In this case, about 65% of the surfactant metabolites are believed to be associated with the sludge solids from work with carbon-14 labeled surfactant. Analysis by the methylene blue:method indicated 5 mg/L surfactant in this solution. The LC50 values for DOWFAX 3B2 with fathead minnows and Daphnia magna are about 3 mg/L ( 96-hour) and 1 mg/L (48-hour), respectively.