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EC number: 232-235-1 | CAS number: 7790-98-9
The distribution of sodium chlorate in human and rat skin is summarised below.
High (5 mg/cm2)
Low (150 µg/cm2)
Skin surface(skin swabs + surface strips)
Remaining on cell (Donor chamber)
Remaining on cell (receptor chamber)
Total absorbable (absorbed + stratum corneum)
Absorption rate (µg/cm2/hr)
Results are expressed as mean applied dose and are calculated from the mean of the individual recoveries and not the sum of the mean components
According to OECD428 and under GLP a comparative in vitro dermal penetration study using human and rat skin was performed.The rate and extent of absorption of sodium chlorate was investigated following dermal application to excised human and rat skin at two dose concentrations. The sodium chlorate was applied as the commercially available undiluted formulation (high level, 5 mg/cm2) and after dilution into water to simulate practical use (low level of 15 g/l). Seven static diffusion cells were prepared for each skin type at each dose level. Dermatomed membranes (200 - 400 µm thickness) were maintained in the cells at approximately 32°C. The integrity of the membranes was first tested using tritiated water (3H2O). After removal of the residual 3H2O, the test formulation was applied to the unoccluded skin samples as a solution at 9.5 µl per cell (10 µl/cm2) (low dose level) and as a granular solid at approximately 5 mg/cm2 (high dose level. To assist skin contact and to mimic perspiration, a saline solution (0.9% w/v) was applied to the skin-membrane (9.5 µl per 0.95 cm2) prior to high dose administration). The skin samples were exposed to the test material for 8 hours, after which time the remaining dose was washed off the skin with a mild detergent solution. Receptor fluid was collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours after dosing. The solubility of sodium chlorate in the receptor fluid was demonstrated to be sufficient for the study and was not rate limiting to the absorption process. At the end of the study, the skin samples were tape stripped to remove residual surface dose and the stratum corneum. The group mean distributions of sodium chlorate are summarised below:
Total % non-absorbed
Total % absorbed
Total % in stratum corneum
Total % absorbable
Total % absorbable = Total % absorbed + Total % in stratum corneum
Results are expressed as mean % applied dose and are calculated from the mean of the individual recoveries and not the sum of the mean components. Rat skin was considerably more permeable than human skin following application at the low dose level. At the high dose level, the permeability of human and rat skin was similar. The directly absorbed material (that in the receptor fluid and remaining in the skin after tape stripping) at 24 hours were 0.30% and 2.17% for the high dose level, and 1.05% and 14.42% for the low dose level, in human and rat skin respectively. There was some affinity of sodium chlorate for the stratum corneum (means of 0.22% and 1.20% of the high dose for human and rat skin respectively, and 0.81% and 3.67% of the low dose for human and rat skin respectively). In vivo, material associated with the stratum corneum may be ultimately absorbed, or lost externally as a result of desquamation of the stratum corneum, and in the case of sodium chlorate the material in this skin layer should be considered as available for absorption. Thus, the total absorbable was 0.51% and 3.37% for human and rat skin at the high dose level, and 1.85% and 18.09% for human and rat skin at the low dose level. The steady-state absorption rates for sodium chlorate applied at the high dose level were 0.446 µg/cm2/hr and 0.467 µg/cm2/hr in human and rat skin, respectively. The steady-state absorption rates for sodium chlorate applied as the aqueous diluted formulation (15 g/l) were 0.166 µg/cm2/hr and 4.875 µg/cm2/hr in human and rat skin, respectively.
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