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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study based on national standards and scientific principles, limited documented, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The photoenhanced toxicity of anthracene to juvenile sunfish (Lepomis spp.)
Author:
Oris JT, Giesy JP
Year:
1985
Bibliographic source:
Aquatic Toxicol. 6, 133-146 (1985)
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Photoinduced toxicity of anthracene in aquatic organisms: an environmental perspective.
Author:
Oris, J.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Allred, P.M.; Grant, D.F.; Landrum, P.F.
Year:
1984
Bibliographic source:
Stud. Environ. Sci. 25 (Biosphere: Probl. Solutions, ed. Veziroglu TN), 639-658 (1984)

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ASTM Standard Test Method: 1984 Annual Book, Section 11
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
modification due to UV light exposure: 48 h - absence of UV, then 96 h exposure UV + anthracene
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Laboratory test with juvenile fish under different irradiation conditions:
48 h acclimation to the substance in the dark to reach an anthracene body burden of about 80% of theoretical steady state,
followed by continuous UV-B, 310 nm, irradiation at different intensities (14.8-170 µW/cm2)
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Anthracene, commercial product (from Sigma, Grade III)

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Coating of a silica sand as carrier with anthracene dissolved in acetone, 24 h evaporation in the dark, filling a column
- Eluate: from elution column filled with coated sand (7.5 x 45 cm glass column)
- Differential loading: no dilution of the saturated eluate (35 µg/L, 22 °C) to desired concentrations
- Controls:
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): no

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Lepomis sp.
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: bluegill sunfish
- Strain: wild caught (L. sp.) and L. machrochirus
- Source: natural from Parl Lake, clinton co. Michigan
commercial source - L. machrochirus from Osage Catfisheries/Osage Beach or ByBrook Bass Hatchery/Ashford
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 2 - 3 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.5 - 1 g
- Method of breeding: none
- Feeding during test: no


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: >= 14 d, photoperiod 18 h light / 6 h dark
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): yes
- Type and amount of food: Biodiet-Starter (BioProducts Inc.)
- Feeding frequency: 2x/d


Study design

Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
328 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
22 +-1°C
pH:
8.20 +-0.27
Dissolved oxygen:
7.15 +-0.24 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Glass aquarium 18.85 L
- Aeration: supply water yes
- Type: flow-through, no data on the rates
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): no data
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): no data


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: tap-water charcoal-filtered
- Alkalinity: 346 mg/L as CaCO3


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: for 48 h starting with 18 h cool-white or gold fluorescent light/6 h dark ("acclimation period" under anthracene exposure),
then shifted to continuous light in 2 h per day increments for 96 h of simulated sunlight
- Light intensity: UV-B (310 +-34 nm) varied from 15 - 165 µW/cm2; UV-A (365 +- 36 nm)


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): immobilisation, behaviour, clinical signs, histological examinations


Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.78 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks:
(fish from hatchery)
Remarks on result:
other: 1.94 - 3.92 µg/L; (UV-B = 14.8 µW/cm2)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
26.47 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks:
(wild caught)
Remarks on result:
other: 22.62 - 34.48 µg/L; (UV-B = 14.8 µW/cm2)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
18.23 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks:
(wild caught)
Remarks on result:
other: 16.14 - 21.11 µg/L; (UV-B = 70 µW/cm2)
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
11.92 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
dissolved
Remarks:
test material
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks:
(wild caught)
Remarks on result:
other: 10.15 - 13.40 µg/L; (UV-B = 170 µW/cm2)
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: yes
- Mortality of control: < 10 % in the presence of simulated sunlight alone
- Other adverse effects control: none
- Abnormal responses: depression of opercular ventilation
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: no
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: no

Any other information on results incl. tables

The fish from commercial sources showed an about 10-fold higher sensitivity to anthracene combined with (weak)

simulated sunlight than the fish of natural origin.

Fish exposed to anthracene in the dark, then transferred to clean water under simulated sunlight exhibited signs of toxicity,

but recovered slowly as anthracene was eliminated from the body.

When allowed to depurate accumulated anthracene in the dark, the fish were not adversely affected when subsequently

exposed to simulated slight.

Applicant's summary and conclusion