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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Acute lethal toxicity of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons to two planktonic crustaceans: the key role of organism-water partitioning
Author:
Abernethy S, Bobra AM, Shiu WY, Wells PG, Mackay D
Year:
1986
Bibliographic source:
Aquat. Toxicol. 8, 163-174 (1986)
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
A predictive correlation for the acute toxicity of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons to the water flea (Daphnia magna)
Author:
Bobra AM, Shiu WY, Mackay D
Year:
1983
Bibliographic source:
Chemosphere 12, 1121-1129 (1983)

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Age of daphnia: 4 - 6 days
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Method: Acute Daphnia study, static, closed system, without UV light
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Sorurce: commercial
- Purity >= 97 %

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Aqueous saturated stock solution in distilled water, obtained by vigorous stirring (magnetic stirrer)
with excess test material under sealed conditions. Afterwards, 48 h settling before start of the bioassay.
- Differential loading: no, dilutions from stock solution

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Laboratory culture of parthenogenetic females
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 4 - 6 days
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): mean 1.5 mm
- Method of breeding: Stock culture held in distilled water at about pH 6.5
- Feeding during test: no
- Food type: trout chow and algae

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
under sealed conditions

Test conditions

Hardness:
--
Test temperature:
23 +-2 °C
pH:
--
Dissolved oxygen:
>= 5 mg/L
Salinity:
--
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no data: 5 test concentrations
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 33 mL, no headspace
- Aeration: no
- Renewal rate of test solution: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 (Bobra et al 1983)
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2 -4 (Bobra et al 1983)
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): same as tests
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): same as tests
- Biomass loading rate: no data

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: distilled

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): mortality

Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Phenol

Results and discussion

Effect concentrations
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
ca. 36 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: LC50 = 0.5 of the saturated solution; without UV
Details on results:
LC50 was not measured or derived from a definite nominal concentration, but derived from the known (prior determined) maximum water solubility (saturated solution). Water saturation was assumed to be 0.4 µmol/L = 72 µg/L (Data from Mackay, D.; Shiu, W.Y. 1981: A critical review of Henry´s Law Constants for chemicals of environmental interest. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 10, 1175-1199).

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
O2 content >=5 mg/L; mortality in controls =< 10 %
Conclusions:
The LC50 was found to be within the range of water solubility without the influence of UV light.