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Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
26 January 1989 - 12 September 1990
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP Guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Working Document 7/3 of the United Kingdom Control of Pesticides Regulations, 1986
GLP compliance:
yes
Application method:
other: contact and oral
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Solution prepared in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)
Test organisms (species):
Apis mellifera
Animal group:
Hymenoptera (honeybees)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Honey bee
- Source: Mr. R. Baker, 15 Abbots Crescent, St. Ives, Cambridgeshire, England
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): no data
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): no data
- Date of collection:
- Cultural background (if honeybees):
- Disease free: no data
- Kept according to standard practices: no data


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Did not take place. Bees were dosed within 3-4 h of removal of the hide.
- Feeding: 20 % sucrose in water ad libitum
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no data
Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
24 ± 1 ºC
Humidity:
The test room humidity was not controlled within the range 40 - 80 % and was not recorded during the test
Photoperiod and lighting:
The tests were conducted in darkness except for essential procedures, in order to minimise stress to the bees.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): cylindrical wire mesh cages 11.5 cm long × 4.0 cm diameter
- Details of emergence and fecundity chambers:
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 10
- No. of replicates per per control : 2


VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
-Final study
- Test concentrations: 100 µg/bee
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 µg/bee
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 100 µg a.i./bee
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect conc.:
> 100 µg per animal
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

Mortality of bees after oral and contact treatment with 100 µg/bee , 10 bees per group

Group

Oral

Contact

24 h

48 h

24 h

48 h

1

0

2

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

3

0

1

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

2

6

0

1

0

1

7

0

0

0

0

8

1

3

0

0

9

0

0

0

1

10

0

0

0

1

1 %

7 %

0 %

6 %

Untreated

1

0

1

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0 %

5 %

0 %

0 %

Executive summary:

Materials and methods: The acute oral and contact toxicity of ziram technical to honey bees was studied according to the United Kingdom Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986, Protocol.

10 groups of 10 bees were all dosed at the maximum concentration of 100 µg/bee. 2 untreated control groups were also observed.

For the contact test, one cage of bees at a time was lightly anasthetised with carbon dioxide and a 1.0µL droplet of the appropriate dilution of ziram was placed on the ventral surface of the thorax of each bee.

For the oral test, the appropriate concentration was administered as a single dose of 0.2 mL to each group of 10 bees in a cage.

Results and discussion: Mortalities of 7 % and 6 % after 48 h at the oral and contact tests, respectively, were observed. Because only one concentration of ziram was tested no dose-related response was obtained and no statistical analysis was required.

Ziram technical has a low toxicity to bees with an LD50 greater than 100 µg/bee by oral and contact application.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
26 January 1989- 25 January 1990
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPP 141-1 (Honey Bee Acute Contact Toxicity)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Application method:
contact
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Solution of ziram was prepared in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The substance was used because ziram is insoluble in other solvents non-toxic to bees. The solubility of ziram in DMSO was found to be between 130 and 140 mg/L. DMSO does not interfere with absorption, distribution, metabolism or retention of ziram by the honeybees. DMSO does not alter the chemical properties of ziram or enhance, reduce or alter its toxic characteristics. DMSO does not affect the food and water consumption of the honeybees and DMSO does not produce physiological effects or have local or systemic activity to the honeybees.
Administration: bees of one cage at a time were lightly anaesthetised with carbon dioxide and a 1.0 µL droplet of the appropriate dilution of ziram was placed on the ventral surface of the thorax of each bee, using a micrometer syringe. The bees were then replaced in the cage.
Test organisms (species):
Apis mellifera
Animal group:
Hymenoptera (honeybees)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Honey bee
- Source: Mr. R. Baker, 15 Abbots Crescent, St. Ives, Cambridgeshire, England
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD):
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD):
- Date of collection:
- Cultural background (if honeybees):
- Disease free: yes / no
- Kept according to standard practices: yes / no


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Did not take place. Bees were dosed within 3-4 h of removal of the hide.
- Feeding: 20 % sucrose in water ad libitum
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no information
Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
24 ± 1 ºC
Humidity:
The test room humidity was not controlled with the range 40 - 80 % and was not recorded during the test period. Himidity is not important to bees provided that they have ad libitum fluid to drink.
Photoperiod and lighting:
In order to minimise stress, the tests were conducted in darkness except for essential procedures.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container / cage (material, size): cylindrical wire mesh cages 11.5 cm long × 4.0 cm diameter
- Details of emergence and fecundity chambers:
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 10
- No. of replicates per per control : 2


VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
-Final study
- Test concentrations: 100 µg/bee
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 µg/bee
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal
Range finding test: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 µg a.i./bee
Final test: 100 µg/bee

Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect conc.:
> 100 µg per animal
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Executive summary:

Materials and methods: The acute contact toxicity of ziram technical to honey bees was studied according to the EPA Pesticide Assessment Guidelines for Non-target Insects, Subdivision L, Series 141-1.

10 groups of 10 bees were all dosed at the maximum concentration of 100 µg/bee. 2 untreated control groups were also observed.

Results and discussion: After dosing the bees recovered normally from anaesthesia in 5-10 minutes. No abnormal behaviour was observed after 4, 24 and 48 hours and normal quantities of 20 % sucrose in water were taken during this period. Because only one concentration of ziram was tested no dose-related response was obtained and no statistical analysis was required.

Ziram technical has a low toxicity to bees with an LD50 greater than 100 µg/bee by contact application.

Description of key information

LD50 (48h) > 100 µg/animal (nominal, Apis mellifera, EPA OPP Guideline 141-1)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The acute toxicity of zinc bis dimethyldithiocarbamate (CAS No. 137-30-4) to honey bees was investigated in two studies by Cole (1990). These studies were conducted according to EPA OPP Guideline 141-1 (Honey Bee Acute Contact Toxicity) and Working Document 7/3 of the United Kingdom Control of Pesticides Regulations (1986), under GLP conditions. After 48 hours, no significant effects on survival were reported in honey bees exposed via oral or contact route to the test material. Therefore, the resulting LD50 for both tests was greater than 100 µg/animal.