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Biodegradation

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Biodegradability of Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log Kow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 7.9 % degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compoundBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4). If released in to the environment,50.2% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of Black pepper oilin water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water whereas the half-life period of black pepper oil in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). Based on this half-life value, it indicates that Black pepper oil is persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period ofBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 47.5 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period ofBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs).

Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Black pepper oil . The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Black pepper oil was estimated to be 360.5 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Transport and distribution

Adsorption / desorption

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) was estimated using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) as 1120 L/kg (log Koc= 3.0491) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) has moderate sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has slow migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Biodegradation

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Following studies include the predicted data and experimental study for the target chemical and structurally similar read acoss to conclude the extent of (Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) towards Biodegradability in water is summarized as follows:

Biodegradability of Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log Kow as the primary descriptor. Test substance undergoes 7.9 % degradation by BOD in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) was estimated to be not readily biodegradable in water.

Similar estimated data for the target chemical suggests that the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound  Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

The predicted data for the target chemical is supported by the experimental study of structurally similar read acoss 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoindene (CAS: 77-73-6) from J-check 2017 suggests that theBiodegradation in water test was carried out for 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoindene according to the OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) 3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoindene (CAS: 77-73-6) is not readily biodegradable after 14 days (120h). After 14 days (120h) the % degradation is 0%.

Further it is supported by another structurally similar read across from J-check 2017, also indixates that the Biodegradation in water test was carried out for 5-ethylidene-8,9,10-trinorborn-2-ene according to the OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) 5-ethylidene-8,9,10-trinorborn-2-ene (CAS: 16219-75-3) is not readily biodegradable after 4 wk (672 h). After 4 wk (672 h) the % degradation is 0%.

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compoundBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4). If released in to the environment,50.2% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of Black pepper oilin water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent in water whereas the half-life period of black pepper oil in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). Based on this half-life value, it indicates that Black pepper oil is persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period ofBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 47.5 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period ofBlack pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4)in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs).

Bioaccumulation

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

Following studies include the predicted data for the target chemical to conclude the extent of bioconcentration of (Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) in environment is summarized as follows:

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Black pepper oil . The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Black pepper oil was estimated to be 360.5 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module Bio-concentration Factor over the entire pH scale of the test substance Black pepper oil  estimated to be 1416 dimensionless.This value indicates that the test substance found to be non-accumulative in aquatic organisms.

It can be concluded from the BCF value that the black pepper oil (CAS: 8006 -82 -4) is non-accumulative in aquatic organisms.

Transport and distribution

Adsorption / desorption

Following studies include the predicted data for the target chemical to conclude the soil adsorption coefficientof (Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) in environment is summarized as follows:

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) was estimated using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) as 1120 L/kg (log Koc= 3.0491) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical Black pepper oil (CAS: 8006-82-4) has moderate sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has slow migration potential to ground water.

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of Black pepper oil (cas: 8006-82-4) was estimated using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program as Koc 6267 (log Koc=3.8 ± 1.0). This Koc value indicates that the test substance has a strong sorption to soil and therefore have negligible to slow migration potential to groundwater.

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