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EC number: 204-465-2 | CAS number: 121-33-5
Short term exposure:
Brooke et al. (1984 and 1984b) were selected as key studies. Conditions of both of these studies were the same: Pimephales promelas were exposed to vanillin under flow-through conditions. The 96H-LC50 was 57 mg/L in the first study and 123 mg/L in the second, based on measured concentrations. No discussion about the differing results was provided by the authors. A geometric mean of these 96H-LC50 was calculated at 83,7 mg/L and selected as key value. Another 96H-LC50 value on the same fish was in the same range : 112 to 121 mg/L. A 24H-LC50 on Oryzias latipes has been reported at 117 mg/L. Both of these publications have been selected as supporting studies.
CIT report (2009) was chosen as key study, since conducted according to OECD guideline and GLP.
Daphnids were exposed to test chemical at nominal concentrations of 0, 5.62, 10, 17.8, 31.6, 56.2 and 100 mg/L for 48 hours in static conditions. Immobilization was observed . The 48 hours EC50 was 36.79 mg/L, and the 48 hours NOEC was 26.8 mg/L.
Only one study on Vanilline was chosen as key study, because it was conducted according to OECD guideline and GLP (CIT, 2009).
Based on the results of this study, Vanilline is considered to be harmful to Daphnia magna.
CIT report (2009) was selected as key study, since conducted according to OECD guideline and GLP.
The algae Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata was exposed to vanillin in a 72-hour static test.
The 72 -hour ErC50 (geometric mean) was 120 mg/L.
The 72 -hour EyC50 (geometric mean) was 78.6 mg/L
The NOEC was 47 mg/L.
Only one study (CIT, 2009) was selected as key study, because it was conducted according to OECD guideline and GLP.
In this study, Vanilline is considered to be harmful to algae.
Other studies were not well described and/or unreliable.
Vanillin was investigated for its ready biodegradability in an OECD301Ctest over 14 days . The percent biodegradation of the test item was calculated based on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and reached 93% within the 14-day. Consequently, Vanillin was found to be readily biodegradable under the test conditions within 14 days and had no inhibitory effect on the activity of activated sludge microorganisms at the tested concentration of 100 mg/L, which can be used as a NOEC value.
Apart form the key study mentioned above, most of the available data are on single species.
The growth inhibition test on Tetrahymena pyriformis has been selected in supporting study and led to an IC50 (40H) = 163 mg/l (Schultz, 1997).
An EC50 (210 min) = 179 mg/l has been reported on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Koch et al., 1993) and Microtox tests gave EC50 (5 min) = 57.8 mg/l and EC50 (15 min) = 100.5 mg/l (Cronin et al., 1981; Jin et al., 1999), however these data are not recommended for STP microorganisms risk characterisation.
The only data available on mixed inoculum concerned anaerobic sludge and revealed an EC50 (49H) = 1800 mg/l on methane production inhibition (Sierra-Alvarez & Lettinga, 1991).
Long term exposure:
Only one GLP study (NIVA, 1996) was available and was selected as key study. Vanillin has been tested on the reproduction of Daphnia magna for 21 days according to the OECD202 and the GLP (NIVA, 1996). Test solutions were renewed 3 times per week. Vanillin concentration of 100 mg/L resulted in a lethal effect starting at day 3. No lethality was observed at 56 mg/L and lower concentrations during 21 days exposure. Sublethal effects of Vanillin included delayed occurence of the first brood, aborted broods and reduced number of live offspring. The EC50 for effect of reproduction (21 days) was estimated at 24 mg/L, LOEC was 18 mg/L and NOECat 10mg/L (all nominal concentartions). Since exposure concentrations were fluctuating, weighed mean concentrations were calculated and led to measured EC50 for effect of reproduction was 16 mg/L, NOEC at 5.9 mg/L and LOECat 10mg/L.
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