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Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1987
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable publication which meets basic scientific principles.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The relative sensitivity of the human eye and lung to irritant gases.
Author:
Douglas RB and Coe EJ
Year:
1987
Bibliographic source:
Ann. Occup. Hyg. 31, 265-267

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Human information eye and respiratory irritation.
Endpoint addressed:
eye irritation
respiratory irritation
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Deviations:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Various concentrations of irritant gases were applied to the eyes of subjects through tight-fitting goggles and, in separate experiments, to the lungs via a mouthpiece. Eye response was detected subjectively, lung response was measured objectively by plethysmograph and the threshold concentrations for no-response were determined.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Pentan-3-one
EC Number:
202-490-3
EC Name:
Pentan-3-one
Cas Number:
96-22-0
Molecular formula:
C5H10O
IUPAC Name:
pentan-3-one

Method

Ethical approval:
not specified
Exposure assessment:
measured
Details on exposure:
Various concentrations of irritant gases were applied to the eyes of subjects through tight-fitting goggles and, in separate experiments, to the lungs via a mouthpiece (volunteers inhaled 10 breaths of 1 L of gas). No details on the applied concentrations or number of subjects are given.
The eyes were exposed exclusively inside tight-fitting goggles. These were supplied with a controlled delivery of freshly generated test atmosphere via helices of stainless steel tubing which allowed movement of the head. While the goggles were being filled, the eyes remained closed until the flow stopped. For acute exposures lasting up to 15 s the subjects received only one concentration on each day and were asked to describe that concentration as either irritant or not by answering 'yes' or 'no'. They were also invited to give any further subjective opinions. By randomizing a number of concentrations and days it was possible to estimate quantitatively the threshold far each individual and to produce group means for each gas.
On separate occasions volunteers inhaled 10 breaths of 1 L of gas at a given concentration. Inhalation was via a mouthpiece while wearing a noseclip with the aim to expose the lung only. Reflex bronchoconstriction, as indicated by increased airways resistance, was measured inside a whole-body plethysmograph (Dubois, A.B., Bothelho, S.Y., Comroe, J.H.Jr., 1956, A new method for measuring airway resistance in man using a body pethysmogaph: values in normal subjects and in patients with respiratory disease. J. clin. Invest. 35, 329). This instrument is sufficiently sensitive to be able to measure 20% resistance change following one cigarette. The physiological threshold of Diethyl ketone for the eyes were plotted against the physiological threshold of Diethyl ketone for the lungs. A logarithmic scale was used for both axes.

Results and discussion

Results:
Following physiological thresholds of Pentan-3-one were estimated for human volunteers:
- physiological threshold for eye irritation: around 700 ppm
- physiological threshold for respiratory irritation: around 400 ppm

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Diethyl ketone was irritating to the human eye and respiratory tract.
Executive summary:

Various concentrations of Diethyl ketone were applied to the eyes of volunteers through closely fitting goggles and, in separate experiments, to the lungs via a mouthpiece. Eye response was detected subjectively, lung response (narrowing of the respiratory passages) was measured objectively by plethysmograph and the threshold concentrations for no-response were determined. In case of Diethyl ketone, the threshold for eye irritation was around 700 ppm, whereas the threshold for respiratory irritation was around 400 ppm in human volunteers.