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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Analogue Justification provided in Section 13.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Key result
Duration:
70 h
Dose descriptor:
other: No quantitative effect concentrations were determined.
Remarks on result:
not determinable because of methodological limitations
Details on results:
No effects observed after 70 h.

No effects observed after 70 h.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
The study has some key deficiencies with respect to the OECD guideline 203: (1) no information available on validity criteria (mortality in control, stability of conditions, dissolved oxygen concentration, analytics), (2) treatment group-size below the recommended min. of 7 fish per concentration (3 or unknown), (3) only 3 concentrations tested instead of the recommended min. of 5 test concentrations, (4) the test temperature was below the recommended test temperature of 20 - 24 °C for C. carpio, (5) the tested fish (3 pounds = 1.36 kg) likely exceed the recommended total length of 3.0 ± 1.0 cm for C. carpio test fish, (6) no effect concentrations reported or derivable (NOEC, LC50).
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
- Principle of test: Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were captured and held in the laboratory tanks at 47 °F (8.33 °C) for weeks. The chemicals to be tested were placed in No. 5 gelatin capsules and force-fed to the fish. The capsules containing the poison were deposited into the thin-walled esophagus using a specially constructed device, which allowed forcing past the barrier formed by the pharyngeal teeth typical of carp. Force-fed fish were marked and placed in 65 °F (18.33 °C) running water for observation. Each chemical, in the gelatin capsules, was force-fed initially to 3 fish. Additional tests employed many more fish. Fish that had been force-fed with one chemical were held with fish that contained other chemicals. This mixing method was considered suitable, since interesting chemicals were retested on isolated fish.
- Short description of test conditions: Some tests were run for 24 h, but the minimum period for almost all tests was 40 h or more. Many fish were observed for a number of days.
- Parameters analysed / observed: Judging of effect was visual. If a fish acted or looked other than normal it was considered to be sick. If no movement occurred it was recorded as dead.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
No. 5 gelatin capsules
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: The chemicals to be tested were placed in one or two No. 5 gelatin capsules by means of an eyedropper or drawn glass funnel.
- Chemical name of vehicle: gelatin capsule
Test organisms (species):
Cyprinus carpio
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: carp
- Source: Wild catch. The test carp were captured with an alternating-current electric boat shocker in the New York State Barge Canal. Poor-quality fish were rejected.
- Weight at study initiation: The fish ranged from 1 (0.453 kg) to 10 (4.53 kg) pounds in weight but averaged around 3 pounds (1.36 kg).
- Maintenance of the brood fish: The carp were held and observed in 13 glass-fronted, fiberglass tanks of 350 gallons (ca. 1325 L) and 550 gallons (ca. 2082 L) capacity. Each tank was independently maintained at any desired temperature by stainless-steel or aluminum coils connected to a closed-circuit oil-burning system and controlled by a solenoid and thermostat. The tanks were non-toxic to fish and other forms of life and required no maintenance.

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: After transportation to the laboratory by tank truck supplied with oxygen, the carp were held for weeks at spring temperature of 47 °F (8.33 °C).
Test type:
other: exposure through force-feeding
Water media type:
freshwater
Remarks on exposure duration:
Exposure via force-feeding.
Post exposure observation period:
Some tests were run for 24 h, but most tests were run for a minimum of 40 h. Many fish were observed for a number of days.
Test temperature:
65 ° F (18.33 °C)
pH:
6.7
Nominal and measured concentrations:
218, 322, 415 mg/kg body weight (nominal)
Key result
Duration:
70 h
Dose descriptor:
other: No quantitative effect concentrations were determined.
Remarks on result:
not determinable because of methodological limitations
Details on results:
No effects observed after 70 h.

No effects observed after 70 h.

Description of key information

No effects after 70 h at 415 mg/kg body weight (non-guideline, force-feeding study)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
100 mg/L

Additional information

There is no study available investigating the acute toxicity of the substance to fish. However, there is one non-GLP and non-guideline publication available (Loeb and Kelly, 1963) investigating the acute toxicity of dehydroacetic acid, which is a chemically and structurally highly similar, and therefore a suitable read-across source substance (see read-across justification in IUCLID section 13).

In this study, Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were captured and held in the laboratory tanks at 47 °F (8.33 °C). The source substance was placed in No. 5 gelatin capsules and force-fed to fish at three nominal concentrations of 218, 322, and 415 mg/kg body weight. The capsules were deposited into the thin-walled esophagus using a specially constructed device, which allowed forcing the capsule past the barrier formed by the pharyngeal teeth typical of carp. Each chemical, in the gelatin capsules, was force-fed to three fish.Force-fed fish were marked and placed in 65 °F (18.33 °C) running water for observation during 40 h or more. Fish that had been force-fed with one chemical were held with fish that contained other chemicals. This mixing method was considered suitable, since interesting chemicals were retested on isolated fish. Judging of effects was visual and symptoms were noted. If a fish acted or looked other than normal it was considered to be sick. If no movement occurred it was recorded as dead.

After 70 h no effects were observed in the fish force-fed with the source substance dehydroacetic acid.