Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

An in vivo study, to assess the potential reproductive toxicity of dehydroacetic acid sodium (DHA-Na), may not be essential for the toxicity database this molecule.

There are sub-chronic or chronic studies that support the view that this molecule did not have any deleterious effects on the main organs of reproduction (ovary or testes) or major endocrine organs (thyroid or adrenal glands). Those studies are summarised in this dossier. The evidence from those studies does not suggest an adverse pathological outcome on the organs of reproduction from those studies conducted either in rats or monkeys.

There are developmental toxicity studies, mouse and rat, which have adequately addressed potential maternal toxicity (through gestation) and in utero survival and development. These studies are summarised in this dossier. The data indicted some fetal responses because of maternal toxicity – noticeably body weight and food consumption deficits. In both studies DHA-Na was shown not to be teratogenic. In one of the studies, groups of female rats (treated through gestation) could litter naturally and raise their offspring to weaning, and then the F1animals could mature until 10 weeks of age. The highest dose in that study was 100 mg/kg bw/day and no adverse toxicological effects were seen in the development and maturation of the F1offspring (NB many rat strains are sexually mature at 10 weeks of age).

The combination of data from the developmental/postnatal and subchronic/chronic studies adequately addresses the potential for adverse outcomes on reproduction in the species tested.

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
the study does not need to be conducted because a pre-natal developmental toxicity study is available
other:
Justification for type of information:
Dehydroacetic acid, sodium salt DHA-Na, CAS 4418-26-2: Waiver for reprotox studies:

An in vivo study, to assess the potential reproductive toxicity of dehydroacetic acid sodium (DHA-Na), is not considered essential for this molecule. There are developmental toxicity studies which have adequately addressed potential maternal toxicity (through gestation) and in utero survival and development. These studies are summarised in this dossier. The data illustrated some fetal responses as a result of maternal toxicity – noticeably body weight and food consumption deficits. In both studies DHA-Na was shown not to be teratogenic. In one of the aforementioned studies, groups of females (treated through gestation) were allowed to litter naturally and raise their offspring to weaning, and then the F1 animals were allowed to mature until 10 weeks of age. The highest dose in that study was 100 mg/kg bw/day and no adverse toxicological effects were seen in the development and maturation of the F1 offspring (NB many rat strains are sexually mature at 10 weeks of age). There are sub-chronic or chronic studies that support the view that this molecule did not have any deleterious effects on the main organs of reproduction (ovary or testes) or major endocrine organs (thyroid or adrenal glands). Those studies are summarised in this dossier. The evidence from those studies does not suggest an adverse pathological outcome on the organs of reproduction from those studies conducted either in rats or monkeys. The combination of data from the developmental/postnatal and subchronic/chronic studies adequately addresses the potential for adverse outcomes on reproduction in the species tested.
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Developmental toxicity studies essentially similar to OECD guideline, dosing period was shorter covering primary organogenesis. Sub-chronic and chronic studies evaluating key toxicity parameters.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Justification for study design:
Developmental toxicity studies essentially similar to OECD guideline, dosing period was shorter cove
ring primary organogenesis. Sub-chronic and chronic studies evaluating key toxicity parameters.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Refer to supporting studies
Species:
other: rat and monkey
Strain:
other: Refer to supporting studies
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Refer to supporting studies
Route of administration:
other: oral. Refer to supporting studies
Vehicle:
other: Refer to supporting studies
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Remarks:
Refer to supporting studies
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Refer to supporting studies
Positive control:
No
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
Refer to supporting studies
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
No
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
No
Litter observations:
Yes
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Yes. Refer to supporting studies
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Yes. Refer to supporting studies
Statistics:
Refer to supporting studies
Reproductive indices:
Yes. Refer to supporting studies
Offspring viability indices:
Refer to supporting studies
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
not specified
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
System:
hepatobiliary
Organ:
liver
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
no
Relevant for humans:
no
Clinical signs:
not examined
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
not examined
Body weight and weight changes:
not examined
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
not examined
Dose descriptor:
other: not examined
Clinical signs:
not specified
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not specified
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not specified
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Sexual maturation:
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not specified
Other effects:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
ca. 100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
other:
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant embryo-fetal toxicity or F1 offspring effects at 50 mg/kg bw/day
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
An in vivo study, to assess the potential reproductive toxicity of dehydroacetic acid sodium (DHA-Na), is not considered essential for this molecule.
Executive summary:

Dehydroacetic acid, sodium salt DHA-Na, CAS 4418-26-2: Waiver for reprotox studies:

An in vivo study, to assess the potential reproductive toxicity of dehydroacetic acid sodium (DHA-Na), is not considered essential for this molecule. There are developmental toxicity studies which have adequately addressed potential maternal toxicity (through gestation) and in utero survival and development. These studies are summarised in this dossier. The data illustrated some fetal responses as a result of maternal toxicity – noticeably body weight and food consumption deficits. In both studies DHA-Na was shown not to be teratogenic. In one of the aforementioned studies, groups of females (treated through gestation) were allowed to litter naturally and raise their offspring to weaning, and then the F1 animals were allowed to mature until 10 weeks of age. The highest dose in that study was 100 mg/kg bw/day and no adverse toxicological effects were seen in the development and maturation of the F1 offspring (NB many rat strains are sexually mature at 10 weeks of age).  There are sub-chronic or chronic studies that support the view that this molecule did not have any deleterious effects on the main organs of reproduction (ovary or testes) or major endocrine organs (thyroid or adrenal glands). Those studies are summarised in this dossier.  The evidence from those studies does not suggest an adverse pathological outcome on the organs of reproduction from those studies conducted either in rats or monkeys.  The combination of data from the developmental/postnatal and subchronic/chronic studies adequately addresses the potential for adverse outcomes on reproduction in the species tested.

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Remarks:
Study is essentially a developmental toxicity study but has a postnatal development phase.
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Circa 1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Essentially a developmental toxicity study but with a number females allowed to deliver their offspring and their postnatal growth and development monitored.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Dihydroacetic acid sodium salt (DHA-Na) referred to as sodium dehydroacetate in the publication.
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Wistar rats (Japanese Rat), 12 to 13 weeks old. Cohabitated nulliparous females and males were paired overnight to achieve conception. For females presenting with sperm on the vaginal smear on the following morning for the experiment this was designated as gestation day 0 (GD 0). The females were housed in individual aluminium pregnancy cages (manufactured by Natsume Seisakusho Co., Ltd.), and were allowed free access to solid feed (Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd., MF) and tap water. The animal rearing laboratory was kept at 25 ± 1oC, 55 ± 5% relative humidity, ventilated 15 times/hr. and under a 12 hours of light regimen (6:00 to 18:00).
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Details on mating procedure:
Cohabitated nulliparous females and males overnight to achieve conception.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
25 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
22
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control:
No
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
Clinical observations, body weight, food consumption.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Not examined.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Not examined.
Litter observations:
From day of birth to 10 weeks of age of the offspring. Clinical observations, body weight.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Necropsy, macroscopic examination.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Necropsy, macroscopic examination, organ weights.
Statistics:
Dams were considered to be the the unit of evaluation for the experimental results; Chi square-tests, t-tests and signed rank sum tests, results compared to the control group; hazard ratios of 5% and 1% were considered significant.
Reproductive indices:
Not specified.
Offspring viability indices:
Not specified, but offspring viability findings are clearly indicated by the data.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Piloerection at 100 mg/kg bw/day from GD 9. Not observed on GD 20.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: significantly reduced at GD 15, 18 and 20. See tabulated data attached. See tabulated data attached.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: significantly reduced at GD 12, 15 and 18. See tabulated data attached.
At 50 mg/kg bw/day: tansistory reduction at GD 12 and 18 - not reduced GD 15 or 20. See tabulated data attached.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
ca. 100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant maternal or embryo-fetal toxicity at 50 mg/kg bw/day.
Key result
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Sexual maturation:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The offspring were weighed weekly and examined daily for 10 weeks, no observations were made regarding abnormal sexual development.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
> 100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant embryo-fetal or F1 offspring toxicity at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: Maternal toxicity was evident as reduced food intake and body weight performance (there were also some changes in food intake ay 50 mg/kg bw/day). Additionally, in the females killed at GD 20, for examination of their uterine content, early resorptions were higher and late resorptions marginally high. Fetal body weight was also low and decreased ossification was observed for some skeletal elements. There were no other treatment related effects at this dosage.
DHA-Na was not teratogenic. For the parental (P0) females, that gave birth naturally, and their progeny, no treatment related effects were seen at any treatment level. All litters developed normally as expected until 10 weeks postpartum when the study was terminated. In utero treatment with DHA-Na up to 100 mg/kg bw/day was without effect on the F1 progeny.
Executive summary:

Groups of 22-23 female rats were treated with DHA-Na at 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day throughout gestation (GD 6 -17). 16-17 females were selected for uterine exanimation at GD 20 and the remaining females were allowed to give birth naturally and raise their litters. The F1 offspring remained on study for 10 weeks. At 100 mg/kg bw/day: Maternal toxicity was evident as reduced food intake and body weight performance (there were also some changes in food intake ay 50 mg/kg bw/day). Additionally, in the females killed at GD 20, for examination of their uterine content, early resorptions were higher and late resorptions marginally high. Fetal body weight was also low and decreased ossification was observed for some skeletal elements. There were no other treatment related effects at this dosage. DHA-Na was not teratogenic. For the parental (P0) females, that gave birth naturally, and their progeny, no treatment related effects were seen at any treatment level. All litters developed normally as expected until 10 weeks postpartum when the study was terminated. In utero treatment with DHA-Na up to 100 mg/kg bw/day was without effect on the F1 progeny.

The effects seen on the fetuses at 100 mg/kg bw/day (and to a lesser extent at 50 mg/kg bw/day) were most likely because of maternal toxicity. This was further illustrated by the females that were allowed to litter, where the F1 offspring survival and development were unaffected by treatment.

Endpoint:
extended one-generation reproductive toxicity - basic test design (Cohorts 1A, and 1B without extension)
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:
Justification for type of information:
Dehydroacetic acid, sodium salt DHA-Na, CAS 4418-26-2: Waiver for reprotox studies:

An in vivo study, to assess the potential reproductive toxicity of dehydroacetic acid sodium (DHA-Na), is not considered essential for this molecule. There are developmental toxicity studies which have adequately addressed potential maternal toxicity (through gestation) and in utero survival and development. These studies are summarised in this dossier. The data illustrated some fetal responses as a result of maternal toxicity – noticeably body weight and food consumption deficits. In both studies DHA-Na was shown not to be teratogenic. In one of the aforementioned studies, groups of females (treated through gestation) were allowed to litter naturally and raise their offspring to weaning, and then the F1 animals were allowed to mature until 10 weeks of age. The highest dose in that study was 100 mg/kg bw/day and no adverse toxicological effects were seen in the development and maturation of the F1 offspring (NB many rat strains are sexually mature at 10 weeks of age). There are sub-chronic or chronic studies that support the view that this molecule did not have any deleterious effects on the main organs of reproduction (ovary or testes) or major endocrine organs (thyroid or adrenal glands). Those studies are summarised in this dossier. The evidence from those studies does not suggest an adverse pathological outcome on the organs of reproduction from those studies conducted either in rats or monkeys. The combination of data from the developmental/postnatal and subchronic/chronic studies adequately addresses the potential for adverse outcomes on reproduction in the species tested.
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Developmental toxicity studies essentially similar to OECD guideline, dosing period was shorter covering primarily organogenesis. Sub-chronic and chronic studies evaluating key toxicity parameters.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Justification for study design:
Developmental toxicity studies essentially similar to OECD guideline, dosing period was shorter covering primarily organogenesis. Sub-chronic and chronic studies evaluating key toxicity parameters.
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
no
Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

DHA-Na was not teratogenic in the mouse or rat.

In the mouse, maternal toxicity was evident at 200 mg/kg bw/day and associated with some fetal effects - fetal mortality and body weight deficit. Some delayed sternebral ossification (a common variant) was observed in DHA-Na administration groups, however, there was no significant difference compared to the control group.

In the rat, maternal toxicity was evident at 100 mg/kg bw/day as reduced food intake and body weight performance. Some females killed at GD 20, early resorptions were higher and late resorptions marginally high. Fetal body weight was also low and some decreased ossification was observed for some skeletal elements. The effects seen on the fetuses at 100 mg/kg bw/day were most likely because of maternal toxicity. For the females allowed to give birth and raise their offspring to 10 weeks of age, DHA-Na had no adverse effects. This was further demonstrated by the females that could litter where the offspring survival and development were unaffected by treatment.

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Circa 1980
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.3700 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Version / remarks:
Similar to Japanese MHW Teratogenicity Study
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Supplier: Taisho Technos Co. Ltd.
Species:
mouse
Strain:
other: ICL-ICR Stated as JCL-ICR in publication mouse
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
The animals were reared in an animal laboratory under the following conditions: five to ten dams were housed in a single plastic cage and allowed free access to solid feed (CE-2, manufactured by CLEA Japan, Inc.) and drinking water, at a room temperature of 20 ± 1°C, and a humidity of 55 ± 5%. Animals were 8 weeks old and acclimatised for 1 to weeks before pairing.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on mating procedure:
Two females to one male, overnight mating confirmed by copulation plug.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Day 6 to 15 of presumed gestation.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily during treatment period.
Duration of test:
From day 0 to day 17 of gestation.
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
The experimental animals used were 8-week-old, nulliparous male and female JCL-ICR mice . After 1 to 2 weeks of preliminary rearing, two female and one male mice were cohabitated one night for the purpose of mating. If a copulatory plug was confirmed on the following morning, this was designated as gestational day (GD) 0.
Maternal examinations:
Body weight of the pregnant mice recorded every day for 17 days, from GD 0 until the end of the experiment in order to examine the effects on the dams, and the clinical course of pregnancy monitored daily.
Ovaries and uterine content:
Autopsies carried out on the pregnant mice in the control group and DHA-Na administration groups on GD 17. During the autopsies, blood tests for maternal hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht), performed macroscopic examination were undertaken and organ weight measurements for several internal organs, including the liver, kidneys and spleen. Histology specimens were prepared a histopathological examination undertaken. The same examinations were undertaken on non-pregnant mice in whom the presence of a copulatory plug was not observed after mating.
Fetal examinations:
Uterine weight measured, intrauterine fetuses assessed as were: the number of implantations sites, the number of live fetuses, body weight of the live fetuses, the number of dead fetuses (classified the dead fetuses into early and late deaths). Systematic macroscopic examination of the live fetuses from the cephalic to caudal regions, examination of congenital malformations, focusing on exencephaly, cleft palate, failed sternebral fusion, brachyury and knotty tails. Stained skeletal specimens were examined using the Dawson method and examined to determine the state of ossification of the skeletal system, as well as the presence of anomalies or malformations, using the calvarium, vertebrae, sternebrae, and ribs.
Statistics:
Yes, but methods not specified. Significance at the 5% level used for data.
Indices:
Not calculated but data clearly presented to illustrate the in utero findings.
Historical control data:
None specified.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 200 mg/kg bw/day effects on maternal hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht), but no dose response relationship evident. See data table below.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
See data table below.
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
See data table below.
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
See data table below.
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
See data table below.
Dead fetuses:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
See data table below.
At 200 mg/kg bw/day only. However this group had a significanlty higher number of live fetuses and implantations and therefore greater stress on the mother. The biological significance of the fetal deaths may therefore be questionable. See data table below.
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Field "Description (incidence and severity)" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.DescriptionIncidenceAndSeverityEffectsOnPregnancyDuration): See data table below.
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
>= 200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
haematology
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse maternal or ebmryo-fetal toxicity at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Fetal body weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 200 mg/kg bw/day only. However this group had a significanlty higher number of fetuses which may have affected this parameter, the biological significance may therefore be questionable. No clear dose response relationship was evident. See data table below.
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): effects observed, treatment-related
Field "Description (incidence and severity)" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.DescriptionIncidenceAndSeverityFetalPupBodyWeightChanges): At 200 mg/kg bw/day only. However this group had a significanlty higher number of fetuses which may have affected this parameter, the biological significance may therefore be questionable. No clear dose response relationship was evident. See data table below.
Reduction in number of live offspring:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of live fetuses at 200 mg/kg bw/day was increased as was the number of dead fetuses. This apparent ambiguity may have been as a result of the greater number of implantations, thus the greater in utero burden to the mothers may have affected in utero development in this strain of mouse. See data table below.
Changes in sex ratio:
not specified
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
not examined
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of fetuses with 14 ribs was higher in the treated groups, however this may be related to the number of dams with 14 ribs that were similarly higher in these groups compare to the control. Such skeletal finding may be regarded as a minor skeletal anomaly and thus a relationship to treament was cinsidered unlikely. See data table below. Compared to the control group, there was significantly delayed sternebral ossification observed in the DHA-Na administration groups. Based on the examination of metacarpal, metatarsal and coccygeal vertebral staining, overall, delayed ossification was observed in the DHA-Na 100 mg and 200 mg administration groups. Skeletal anomalies observed in the 50 mg and 100 mg groups included a number of cases with bifurcated and fused cervical vertebrae and ribs, although no significant difference was observed in comparison to the control group.
Visceral malformations:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
A single case with cleft palate in the 100 mg/kg bw/day administration group during the examination for congenital malformations, no anomalies were seen in the control group or any other administration groups. A relationship to treatment is considered unlikely. The authors state that cleft palate is a spontaneous malformation in this strain of mouse. See data table below.
Other effects:
no effects observed
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Skeletal variants: number of metacarpals
Abnormalities:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Localisation:
other: skeletal variants
Description (incidence and severity):
see tabulated data
Developmental effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
200 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Treatment related:
yes
Relation to maternal toxicity:
developmental effects as a secondary non-specific consequence of maternal toxicity effects
Dose response relationship:
no
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Effect of DHA-Na on pregnant mice

Dose (mg/kg)

 

0

50

100

200

Mated

 

25

25

25

25

Pregnant (%)a

 

20 (80.0)

18(72.0)

21(84.0)

20(80.0)

Premature delivery

 

0

0

0

0

Maternal death

 

0

0

0

0

Total litter loss

 

0

0

0

0

Dams with alive fetuses (%)b

20(100.0)

18(100.0)

21(100.0)

20(100.0)

Numerals in parentheses indicate 

a: percentages to the number of mated dams.

b: percentages to the number of pregnant dams

Effect of DHA-Na on pregnant mice (continued)

 

Dose (mg/kg)

0

50

100

200

Body weight (g)

(m) (σ)

 

 

 

at 0 day

25.2 ± 0.8

24.9 ± 1.0

25.0 ± 1,2

25.3 ± 1.2

at 17 day

41.5 ± 4. 5

41.0 ± 5.7

42.6 ± 4.0

40. 5 ± 4. 2

B.W. gain rate (%)

165.0 ± 18.24

164.9 ± 20.87

170.4 ± 14. 85

159.8 ± 14.46

Uterus (g)

11.00 ± 4.18

12.19 ± 4.76

12.39 ± 3. 36

11.06 ± 3.43

Organ weight (g)

 

 

 

 

Liver

1.88 ± 0.21(4.5)

1.88 ± 0.32 (4. 6)

1.90 ± 0.17 (4.5)

1.95 ± 0.20 (4.8)

Kidneys

0.33 ± 0.03 (0.8)

0.32 ± 0.03 (0.8)

0.32 ± 0.03 (0.8)

0.33 ± 0.03 (0.8)

Spleen

0.10 ± 0.03 (0.2)

0.11 ± 0.03 (0.3)

0.13 ± 0.04 (0.3)

0.12 ± 0.03 (0.3)

Hb (g/d/)

13.5 ± 0.81

13.7 ± 0.94

13.5 ± 0.64

13.6 ± 0.59

Ht (%)

38.5 ± 3.3

41.0 ± 2.4*

37.8 ± 3.1

39.1 ± 2.4

 

(m); mean           (σ); S.D.

* Significant at 5% level in comparison with the control group
Numerals in parentheses indicate relative weight (%)

Tab. 4 Effect of DHA-Na administered to the dams on embryonic development in mice

Dose (mg/kg)

0

50

100

200

Dams

20

18

21

20

No. of implantations

165

174

191

195

 

(m) (σ)

 

 

 

 

8.25 ± 3.45

9.67 ± 4.03

9.10 ± 2.57

9. 75+3.06

Alive fetuses

 

 

 

 

No. of fetuses

161 (97.6)

166 (95.4)

187 (97.9)

178 (91.3)**

Litter size

8.05 ± 3.32

9.22 ± 3.84

8.90 ± 2.64

8.90 ± 3.06

Body weight (g)

0.93 ± 0.12

0.86 ± 0.11**

0.92 ± 0.11

0.76 ± 0.11**

Dead fetuses

 

 

 

 

No. of fetuses

4 (2.4)

8 (4.6)

4 (2.1)

17 (8.9)**

Early

3 (1.8)

6 (3.4)

2 (1.0)

7 (3.6)

Late

1 (0.6)

2 (1.1)

2 (1.0)

10 (5.1)

(m); mean (σ); S.D.

* Significant at 5% level in comparison with the control group
Numerals in parentheses indicate relative weight(%)

Effect of DHA-Na administered to the dams on anomalies in fetal mice

Dose (mg/kg)

0

50

100

200

Dams

20

18

21

20

No. of fetuses examined

161

166

187

178

No. of fetuses with malformation

 

 

 

 

Cleft palate

0

0

1 (0.5)

0

Exencephaly

0

0

0

0

Numerals in parentheses indicate percentage to the number of total fetuses examined

Tab. 6 Effect of DHA-Na administered to the dams on skeletal variations in fetal mice

Dose (mg/kg)

0

50

100

200

Dams

20

18

21

20

No. of fetuses examined

161

166

187

178

No. of fetuses with variations

 

 

 

 

Cervical vertebrae

0

1

2

0

Thoracic vertebrae

0

0

0

0

Rib

1

2

2

0

Lumbar vertebrae

0

0

0

0

Sacral vertebrae

0

0

0

0

Extremities

0

0

0

0

Total

1

3

4

0

No. of fetuses with cervical ribs

2

0

0

0

No. of fetuses with 14 ribs

44 (27.3)

84 (50.6)**

140 (74.9)**

141 (79.2)**

No. of dams of fetuses with 14 ribs

12 (60.0)

17 (94.4)*

21 (100.0)*

20 (100.0)*

in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of total fetuses examined Significant at 5% and 1% level in comparison with the control group

Effect of DHA-Na administered to the dams on skeletal development in fetal mice

Dose (mg/kg)

 

0

50

100

300

Dams

20

18

21

20

No. of fetuses examined

 

161

166

187

178

No. of fetuses with deformed sternebrae

10 (6.1)

57 (34.3)**

34 (18.1)**

127 (71.3)**

No. of metacarpals

 

 

 

 

 

Left

0

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

2 (1.1)

5(2.8)

 

1

0

0

0

3 (1.7)

 

2

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

3 (1.6)

59 (33.1)**

 

3

56 (34.8)

120 (72.3)**

138 (73.8)**

108 (60.7)**

 

4

103 (64.0)

42 (25.3)**

42 (22.5)**

3 (1.7)**

 

5

0

0

0

0

Right

0

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

2 (1.1)

5 (2.8)

 

I

0

0

0

3 (1.7)

 

2

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

3 (1.6)

59 (33.1)**

 

3

58 (34.8)

120 (72.3)**

138 (73.8)**

108 (60.7)**

 

4

103 (64.0)

42 (25.3)**

42 (22.5)**

3 (1.7)**

 

5

0

0

2 (1.1)

0

No. of metatarsals

 

 

 

 

 

Left

0

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

4 (2.1)

6 (3.4)

 

1

0

1(0.6)

0

3 (1.7)

 

2

1 (0.6)

0

0

7 (3.9).

 

3

1 (0.6)

31 (18.7)**

7 (3.7)*

88 (49.4)**

 

4

144 (89.4)

130 (78.3)**

172 (92.0)

74 (41.6)**

 

5

14 (8.7)

2 (1:2)**

4 (2.1)**

0**

Right

0

1 (0.6)

2 (1.2)

4 (2.1)

6 (3.4)

 

1

0

1 (0.6)

0

3 (1.7)

 

2

1 (0.6)

0

0

7 (3.9)*

 

3

1 (0.6)

31 (18.7)**

7 (3.7)*

88 (49.4)**

 

4

144 (89.4)

130 (78.3)**

172 (92.0)

74 (41.6)**

 

5

14 (8.7)

2 (1.2)**

4 (2.1)**

0**

No. of coccygeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

4 (2.5)

9 (5.4)

6 (3.2)

78 (43.8)**

 

1

5 (3.1)

26 (15.7)**

11 (5.9)

32 (18.0)**

 

2

51 (31.7)

43 (25.9)

46 (24.6)

58 (32.6)

 

3

65 (40.4)

69 (41.6)

102 (54.5)**

10 (5.6)**

 

4

25 (15.5)

16 (9.6)

17 (9.1)

0**

 

5

9 (5.6)

3 (1.8)

5 (2.7)

0**

 

6

1 (0. 6)

0

0

0

 

7

1 (0.6)

0

0

0

*** Significant at 5% and 1% level in comparison with the control group Numerals in parentheses indicate percentages to the number of examined

Conclusions:
Maternal toxicity was evident at 200 mg/kg bw/day as changes in haematological parameters with increases in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Some fetal effects were noted as an increase in fetal mortality and body weight at 200 mg/kg bw/day. Increased incidences of fetal 14th (a common anomaly in this mouse strain) were closely associated with the same rib count in the dams. Some delayed sternebral ossification was observed in all the DHA-Na administration groups. Skeletal an
omalies observed in the 50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day but there was no significant difference observed in comparison to the control group.
Executive summary:

In this developmental toxicity study DHA-Na was administered daily by oral gavage to pregnant JCLICR mice from GD 6 to GD 15 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg bw/day. Maternal toxicity was evident at 200 mg/kg bw/day as changes in haematological parameters with increases in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Some fetal effects were noted as an increase in fetal mortality and body weight at 200 mg/kg bw/day. This may have reflected the increased number of implantations and live foetuses in this group. Increased incidences of fetal 14thwere closely associated with the same rib count in the dams. Some delayed sternebral ossification was observed in all the DHA-Na administration groups. Skeletal anomalies observed in the 50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day groups included a few cases of bifurcated and fused cervical vertebrae and ribs, however there was no significant difference observed in comparison to the control group.

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Circa 1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study was essentiality a developmental toxicity study (16-17 animals/group) that included several the females (6/group) that were allowed to give birth and rear their young to weaning. See below for further details of the methodology.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Dihydroacetic acid sodium salt (DHA-Na) referred to as sodium dehydroacetate in the publication.
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Wistar rats (Japanese Rat), 12 to 13 weeks old. Cohabitated nulliparous females and males were paired overnight to achieve conception. For females presenting with sperm on the vaginal smear on the following morning for the experiment this was designated as gestation day 0 (GD 0). The females were housed in individual aluminium pregnancy cages (manufactured by Natsume Seisakusho Co., Ltd.), and were allowed free access to solid feed (Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd., MF) and tap water. The animal rearing laboratory was kept at 25 ± 1oC, 55 ± 5% relative humidity, ventilated 15 times/hr. and under a 12 hours of light regimen (6:00 to 18:00).
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on mating procedure:
Not precisely specified: natural mating, assumed 1:1 M/F overnight.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily Gestation days (GD) 6 to 17.
Duration of test:
GD 0 to weaning of F1 offspring.
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
25 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
22-23
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
See any other information on methods below.
Maternal examinations:
Clinical observations, body weight, food consumption.
Ovaries and uterine content:
Ovaries, corpora lutea, implantations, live and dead fetuses, fetal weight and sex, macroscopic
abnormalities.
Fetal examinations:
Fetal weight and sex, macroscopic abnormalities, visceral and skeletal examinations.
Statistics:
Dams were considered to be the the unit of evaluation for the experimental results; Chi square-tests, t-tests and signed rank sum tests, results compared to the control group; hazard ratios of 5% and 1% were considered significant.
Indices:
None specified.
Historical control data:
None specified.
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Piloerection at 100 mg/kg bw/day from GD 9. Not observed on GD 20.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: significantly reduced at GD 15, 18 and 20. See tabulated data attached.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: significantly reduced at GD 12, 15 and 18. See tabulated data attached.
At 50 mg/kg bw/day: tansistory reduction at GD 12 and 18 - not reduced GD 15 or 20.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not specified
Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: increase in early deaths (absorptions) and small increase in late absorptions.
See tabulated data attached.
Total litter losses by resorption:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One isolated female at 100 mg/kg bw/day. See tabulated data attached.
Early or late resorptions:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: increase in early deaths (absorptions) and small increase in late absorptions.
See tabulated data attached.
Dead fetuses:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: increase in early deaths (absorptions) and small increase in late absorptions (late fetal death). See tabulated data attached.
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: No significant maternal or embryo-fetal toxicity at 50 mg/kg bw/day.
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Fetal body weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
100 mg/kg bw/day: significantly reduced. See tabulated data attached.
50 mg/kg bw/day: reduced.
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Field "Description (incidence and severity)" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.DescriptionIncidenceAndSeverityFetalPupBodyWeightChanges): Postnatal growth: No effects at any treatment level for 10 weeks post partum. See tabulated data attached.
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
no effects observed
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
> 50 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No toxicity on F1 offspring from mothers treated through gestation.
Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Key result
Developmental effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Treatment related:
yes
Relation to maternal toxicity:
developmental effects as a secondary non-specific consequence of maternal toxicity effects
Dose response relationship:
no
Relevant for humans:
not specified
Conclusions:
At 100 mg/kg bw/day: Maternal toxicity was evident as reduced food intake and body weight performance (there were also some changes in food intake ay 50 mg/kg bw/day). Additionally, in the females killed at GD 20, for examination of their uterine content, early resorptions were higher and late resorptions marginally high. Fetal body weight was also low and decreased ossification was observed for some skeletal elements. There were no other treatment related effects at this dosage.
DHA-Na is not teratogenic. For the females allowed to give birth and raise their offspring to 10 weeks of age, DHA-Na had no adverse effects. The effects seen on the fetuses at 100 mg/kg bw/day (and to a lesser extent at 50 mg/kg bw/day)
were most likely because of maternal toxicity. This was further illustrated by the females that were a llowed to litter where the offspring survival and development were unaffected by treatment.
Executive summary:

Groups of 22-23 female rats were treated with DHA-Na at 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day throughout gestation (GD 6 -17). 16-17 females were selected for uterine exanimation at GD 20 and the remaining females allowed to give birth and raise their litters. The F1 offspring remained on study for 10 weeks. At 100 mg/kg bw/day: Maternal toxicity was evident as reduced food intake and body weight performance (there were also some changes in food intake ay 50 mg/kg bw/day). Additionally, in the females killed at GD 20, for examination of their uterine content, early resorptions were higher and late resorptions marginally high. Fetal body weight was also low and decreased ossification was observed for some skeletal elements. There were no other treatment related effects at this dosage. DHA-Na is not teratogenic. For the females allowed to give birth and raise their offspring to 10 weeks of age, DHA-Na had no adverse effects. The effects seen on the fetuses at 100 mg/kg bw/day (and to a lesser extent at 50 mg/kg bw/day) were most likely because of maternal toxicity. This was further illustrated by the females that were allowed to litter, where the offspring survival and development were unaffected by treatment.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
100 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Justification for classification or non-classification

DHA-Na was not teratogenic in the mouse or rat. Nor were there any adverse effects on peri- or postnatal (up to 10 weeks of age for the F1 offspring) parameters. Classification for reproductive or developmental toxicity is not warranted.