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Stability:

Hydrolysis

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the hydrolysis half-life value of the test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo] phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated can be expected to be 6 yrs and 211 days at pH 7 and 8, respectively with a second order hydrolysis rate constant of 0.038 L/mol-sec and was reported to be hydrolytically stable at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively & at a temperature of 50⁰C, respectively. Thus, based on this half-life value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo] phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated is not hydrolysable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical  2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation:aquatic/sediment:

BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated was estimated to be 10 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methyl phenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated was estimated to be 10000000000 L/kg (log Koc=10.6168)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated has a very strong sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have negligible migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Stability:

Hydrolysis

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals has been reviewed to determine the half-life of the test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo] phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3).The studies are as mentioned below:

 

The half-life of the test chemical was determined at different pH range. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 111 (Hydrolysis as a Function of pH) at a temperature of 50°C. Although, half-life value of test chemical is not known, but chemical was reported to be hydrolytically stable at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively and at a temperature of 50⁰C. Based on this, it is concluded that test chemical is not hydrolysable.

 

In an another study, the half-life and base catalyzed second order hydrolysis rate constant was determined using a structure estimation method of the test chemical. The second order hydrolysis rate constant of test chemical was determined to be 0.038 L/mol-sec with a corresponding half-lives of 6 yrs and 211 days at pH 7 and 8, respectively. Based on the half-life values, it is concluded that test chemical is not hydrolysable.

 

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the hydrolysis half-life value of the test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo] phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated can be expected to be 6 yrs and 211 days at pH 7 and 8, respectively with a second order hydrolysis rate constant of 0.038 L/mol-sec and was reported to be hydrolytically stable at pH 4, 7 and 9, respectively & at a temperature of 50⁰C, respectively. Thus, based on this half-life value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo] phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated is not hydrolysable.

 

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

One predicted data study for target chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3) and three experimental studies for its structurally similar read across chemicals have been conducted and their results are summarized below.

In first weight of evidence study the prediction was done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) in this study the biodegradation potential of the test compound 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3) was estimated in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical  2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Second study was experimental study done from authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) for structurally similar read across chemical in this study the test chemical showed 0.0% biodegradation by considering BOD as parameter in 5 days, and by taking sewage as inoculums. So it is concluded that read across chemical disodium 6-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]naphthalene-2-sulfonate is not readily biodegradable.

Next supporting weight of evidence study was also experimental study done from authoritative database (J check, 2017) in this study test chemical was subjected to biodegradation test by taking sludge as inoculums at 30 mg/L concentration. Biodegradation was analysed by using BOD parameter. The initial concentration of read across chemical was 100 mg/L. After 2 weeks (14 days) test chemical showed 0 % biodegradability by BOD parameter and by taking activated sludge as inoculumin 14 days. on the basis of percent degradability it is concluded that test chemical  is not readily biodegradable.

Last supporting weight of evidence study was also experimental study done from UERL laboratory in this study biodegradation of test chemical was determined by using 28-days Manometric respirometry test following the OECD guideline 301 F. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of read across and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for the study was 20 mg/l and 30 mg/l, while that of inoculum was 10ml/L. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.050mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.088 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the read across item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 4.596 %. Based on the results, the test chemical, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20 ± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

On the basis of above results for target chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3)from ( EPI suite 2017) and for its read across substances ( from authoritative databases and UERL laboratory) the target chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS no. 85203 -90 -3)can be expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation:aquatic/sediment:

One predicted data study for the target compound 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3)and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across chemical were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

In first weight of evidence study the BCFBAF model (v3.01) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl) azo]phenyl] azo]-, ar-styrenated was estimated to be 10 L/kg whole body w.w (at 25 deg C) which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated is not expected to bioaccumulate in the food chain.

Next weight of evidence study was done from authoritative databasein this study the Bioaccumulation experiment was conducted for 6 weeks for determination the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test chemical chemical on test organism Cyprinus carpio. 

The vehicle used in the study was HCO-40, Crystal sugar, Concentration of vehicle: 1st Concentration area: HCO-40 14 ppm(w/v), Crystal sugar 14 ppm(w/v), 2nd Concentration area: HCO-40 1.4 ppm(w/v) Crystal sugar 1.4 ppm(w/v)

Recovery ratio: Test water : 1st concentration area : 96.1 %, 2nd concentration area : 95.4 %, Fish : 79.8 %, - Limit of detection : Fish : 0.25 ppm

The Nominal concentrations used in the study was 1st Concentration area: 0.7 mg/L(w/v), 2nd Concentration area: 0.07 mg/L (w/v)and Range finding study was carried out on Rice fish (Oryzias latipes) TLm(48h>= 420 ppm(w/v).

 Thus according to static Fish test the bioconcentration factor (BCF) for test  chemical was determined according static fish test. The BCF value was observed to be 0.9 – 1.8 L/kg at dose concentration 0.7 mg/L and 8.5 - 15 L/kg at dose concentration 0.07 mg/L on test organism Cyprinus carpio during 6 weeks period. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical is non bioaccumulative.

Last weight of evidence study was done from another authoritative database for test chemical chemical in this study the ionic character of test chemical chemical suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is expected to be low.

On the basis of above results for target chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3) (from EPI suite 2017) and for its read across chemicals it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3)ranges from 0.0 to 15 L/Kg dimensionless which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl- 4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenatedis expected to be nonbioaccumulative in the food chain.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

One predicted data for the target compound of 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3)and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across chemical were reviewed for the Adsorption end point are summarized as below.

In first weight of evidence study the KOCWIN model (v2.00) of Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) was used to predict the soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of test chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3). The soil adsorption coefficient i.e Koc value of 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methyl phenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated was estimated to be 10000000000 L/kg (log Koc=10.6168)  by means of MCI method (at 25 deg C). This Koc value indicates that the substance 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated has a very strong sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have negligible migration potential to ground water.

Next study was experimental study for read across chemical done from Screening Assessment for the Challenge in this study the Log Koc values for test chemical are based on calculations by Baughman and Perenich (1988) using a range of measured solubility for commercial dyes and an assumed melting point of 200 deg. C. During experiment the Log Koc (Organic carbon water partition coefficient) (dimensionless) was reported to be 3.4 to 4.2.

Based on the result it is concluded that the test chemical has low water solubility and a relatively high Koc it is not likely to leach from sediments and soils means test chemical is immobile in soil and sediment.

 

Third study was also experimental study done from UERL laboratory in this study the adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical  was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method. The reference substances were chosen according to estimated Koc range of the read across substance and generalized calibration graph was prepared. The reference substances were Phenol, Aniline, Nitrobenzene, naphthalene, Phenanthrene and DDT were chosen having Koc value ranging from 1.32 to 5.63. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 3.679 dimensionless at 25°C. Based on the value of log Koc it is concluded that this test chemical has strong sorption to soil and sediments.

Last weight of evidence study was also experimental study done from peer reviewed journal in this study the adsorption coefficient of test chemical was studied by using Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The aim of the investigation is to determine the adsorption behavior of azo dyes in aqueous solution on DG06, GSE17200, and GSE17201 soils using C. I. Acid Red 14. GSE17200 and GSE17201 soils were obtained from Bayer Landwirtschaftszentrum, Monheim, Germany. DG06 soil was sampled in the surface layers (0– 20 cm) located in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.

Three kinds of soils were air-dried, sieved to 2 mm and stored in dark at a room temperature (20 ±1°C). The effect of initial dye concentration on the dye adsorption capacity was investigated between 100 and 800 mg/L at 20 ± 0.5°C. The dye uptake efficiencies of AR14 on DG06, GSE17200, and GSE17201 soils are high, and they are 21.9%, 10.4%, and 8.0%, respectively. By using Freundlich adsorption isotherm, Kf(Freundlich Constants)values were found to be 7.1*10-3 L/mg, 4.8*10-3L/mg, and 3.2*10-3L/mg forDG06, GSE17200, and GSE17201 soils respectively indicating high adsorption capacity of test chemical chemical

On the basis of above results for target chemical 2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (from EPI suite, 2017) and for its read across chemicals (From Screening Assessment for the Challenge, UERL Lab and Journal of Environmental Sciences) it can be concluded that the log Koc value of target chemical ranges from 3.679 to 10.61 indicating that the chemical2-Naphthalenol, 1-[[2-methyl-4-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]phenyl]azo]-, ar-styrenated (CAS No. 85203 -90 -3)has strong  to very strong sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have negligible migration potential to ground water.