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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

basic toxicokinetics, other
Type of information:
other: Expert statement
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Expert Statement in accordance with ECHA Guidance Document on IR & CSA Chapter R7c.

Data source

Reference Type:
other: Expert Statement

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Expert Statement in accordance with ECHA Guidance Document on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment Chapter R7c.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
tert-butyl peracetate
EC Number:
EC Name:
tert-butyl peracetate
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
tert-butyl ethaneperoxoate

Results and discussion

Toxicokinetic / pharmacokinetic studies

Details on absorption:
As the hydrolysis rate was shown to be very low, absorption in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) will mainly be limited to the parent compound. Generally, oral absorption is favored for molecular weights below 500 g/mol. Further, the test item is well soluble in water and is thus expected to be well absorbed by bulk water passage through the intestinal walls. The test item has a logPow 1.6 and is thus in the range of -1 to 4 which is expected to favor GI absorption.
The above considerations are supported by experimental toxicity data. In acute and repeated oral toxicity studies performed with the test item clear signs of systemic toxicity were observed indicating the bioavailability of the test item after oral administration in rats.
Due to its low vapour pressure (2 Pa), the test item is considered to be of low volatility. Therefore, exposure with the substance via the inhalation route is unlikely, also taking into account that the test item decomposes at temperatures above 70 °C. Thus, the test item is not expected to be available as vapor or gas.
However, if the substance would reach the respiratory tract in its vapour or gaseous state, the small molecular size, well water solubility and low logPow of the test item would probably favor absorption through the mucous membranes of the lung. This is confirmed by fatal findings in acute inhalation studies leading to classification as toxic if inhaled (Cat. 3) according to CLP.
Similarly, based on its physico–chemical properties, the test item is likely to penetrate skin easily as the logPow value and well water solubility favor dermal penetration. It is generally accepted that if a compound’s water solubility is between 100-1000 mg/L, absorption can be anticipated to be moderate to high. Substances with a logPow value between -1 and 4 will be well absorbed through skin as the rate of transfer between the stratum corneum and the epidermis is favored. This is confirmed by mortalities observed after dermal application in the rabbit at high doses of 8000 mg/kg and above. Moreover, the substance classified as skin sensitizer indicating that it passes through the skin.
Details on distribution in tissues:
Assuming that the test item becomes bioavailable following oral intake, it may be widely distributed by body fluids and into the intercellular concentration may be higher than extracellular concentration. It is expected that the test item starts to hydrolyse to a low extent during and after absorption.
The results from the OECD 422 compliant study indicate histopathological effects in stomach and small intestine, liver, bone marrow, spleen, lymphatic organs, and in the males reproductive organs at 500 mg/kg bw/day, being in line with the above considerations. The stomach was also affected in animals at 150 and 50 mg/kg bw/day, the duodenum and jejunum in animals at 150 mg/kg/day and the duodenum in females at 50 mg/kg bw/day. No developmental effects were observed in the offspring that could provide indications of a distribution through the placenta and umbilical cord.
Based on the low logPow value of the test item (1.6) it is of no concern regarding bioaccumulating potential due to lipophilicity.
Details on excretion:
As discussed in the metabolism section, the test item will be metabolised either as parent or its hydrolysis products facilitating increased hydrophilicity. The first hydrolysis product tert-butyl alcohol has a low molecular weight of 74.12 g/mol, is miscible in water and thus may either be directly excreted or further metabolised by Phase II enzymes before excretion. Further potential but not confirmed hydrolysis products are acetic acid and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Both are of low molecular weight (60.05 and 90.1 g/mol) and well soluble in water and are therefore considered to be excreted via urine.

Metabolite characterisation studies

Details on metabolites:
Based on the structure of the molecule, the test item may be metabolized by Phase I enzymes undergoing functionalization reactions aiming to increase hydrophilicity. Here, metabolism to more toxic metabolites cannot completely be ruled out in the organism. However, available in vitro test data of studies conducted with and without metabolizing system do not give indication of increased toxicity due to metabolic activation. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic hydrolysis, direct reaction with biomolecules due the reactivity of the peroxyester group of the parent or the hydroperoxide formed during hydrolysis (e. g. TBHP) might be expected. Hydrolysis may already occur in the gastrointestinal tract. However, hydrolysis half-life of the test item was determined to be slow at any pH. Thus, it is rather expected to be faciliated by an enzymatic process (e.g. esterases or other enzymatic systems of the intestinal microflora). If the parent compound reaches the liver enzymatic cleavage of the peroxyester bond is also expected (e.g. by glutathione peroxidase), resulting in tert-butyl alcohol and acetic acid. Both are of smaller molecular size and have an even lower logPow than the test item. Thus, both cleavage products are expected to become easily excreted or even included into the endogenous metabolic pathways (citric acid cycle). Unspecific reactions with biomolecules can take place either in the GI-tract or subsequent to absorption. It is assumed that the parent molecules can react directly or after cleavage to hydroperoxide. The test item is a skin sensitiser, indicating that reactions with macromolecules are likely to occur. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species which might be formed during metabolism can be deactivated by non-enzymatic antioxidants abundantly available in the organism (e. g. Vitamin E protecting lipid membranes from being peroxidised, Vitamin C and glutathione). Conjugates of these may be faciliated to become excreted or are re-cycled within the endogenous redox system.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Based on the physicochemical properties of the test item, particularly its water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient and vapour pressure, some absorption via the oral and limited absorption via the dermal route is expected. This assumption is further supported by the results of the dermal and oral acute toxicity studies. The test item is considered to be readily metabolized by Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Further it may partially undergo hydrolysis being dissolved in body fluids. Hydrolysis products are readily metabolised or excreted via the urine as such since their molecular weight and logPow is lower and water solubility is higher than for the test item itself. Based on these considerations the test item as well as its hydrolysis products is of no concern regarding bioaccumulation.