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Description of key information

Read-across - Repeated dose oxicity: oral, OECD Guideline 407, 28 -day sub-acute toxicity, oral in rats: NOEL 1,000 mg/kg/bw

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH

INTRODUCTION
In order to fulfil the information requirements according to Annex VIII to Regulation (EC) No1907/2006 which applies for tonnages in the range between 10 and 100 tonnes/year, data on physico-chemical, toxicity, ecotoxicity and environmental fate properties of a chemical must be submitted. For the registration of tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate (EC No 221-508-0, CAS No 3126-80-5), available experimental data are confined to some physical-chemical and environmental fate information. Further information, notably for toxicicological and ecotoxicological endpoints, can be obtained from studies using the source substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate, with the abbreviation TOTM (EC No 222-020-0, CAS No 3319-31-1). Data on structurally related ester compounds with other aliphatic alcohols can strengthen the read-across approach. In this regard, trioctyl benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate is considered as supporting compound.

The read-across justification relies on the principles detailed in the Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals (ECHA, 2008), and the Read-Across Assessment Framework document (ECHA, 2017). The read-across hypothesis implies that different, but structurally similar compounds produce the same type of effects, or both are characterized by the absence of effects (analogue approach - Scenario 2). The properties of the target substance are predicted to be quantitatively equal or lower when compared to those of the source substance (worst-case prediction). Similar but not identical (bio-)transformation products or metabolites with the same type of functional groups may occur but are not exclusively the basis for the read-across hypothesis.

The source and the supporting compounds are characterized by a low-toxicity profile, with minor concerns arising from repeated dose and reproduction toxicity testing of the source substance. Due to the low systemic toxicity, information on the mode of action is limited which otherwise could be used to improve the read-across hypotheses. On the other hand, regarding the environmental fate, the source substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate is known to be not readily biodegradable.

It will have to be shown that tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate (TOTM) and tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate do not share the properties, especially the mammalian toxicity, of phthalates such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, with the abbreviation DEHP (EC No 204-211-0, CAS No 117-81-7), which proved to be an endocrine disruptor. Toxicokinetic studies in mammals indicate significant differences in gastrointestinal hydrolysis, metabolism and absorption between TOTM and DEHP which can explain the dissimilarity in the toxicity profile.


1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
The rationale for the hypothesis is described in the Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.6: QSARs and grouping of chemicals (ECHA, 2008), and the Read-Across Assessment Framework document (ECHA, 2017). The read-across hypothesis implies that different, but structurally closely related compounds produce the same type of effects, or are characterized by the absence of effects, due to similar, biological active or inactive structural characteristics (analogue approach - Scenario 2).

Here, the properties of the target substance are predicted to be quantitatively equal or lower when compared to those of the source substance which represent the worst-case. This assumption is based on the observation that the toxicity decreases with an increasing number of formic acid residues attached to the phenyl ring (2 in phthalates, 3 in the source, 4 in the target compound). An explanation for this observation would be that the hydrolysis rate decreases with an increasing number of formic acid residues which are in an ester bond with 2-ethylhexan-1-ol. At the same time, resorbable mono-esters are formed to a lower extend. The sub-structure feature, which is shared by phthalates as well as the source and target compound, is phthalic acid, synonym 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. Except for the hydrolysis product 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, which seems to be of low toxicological relevance, the biotransformation products or metabolites are similar as they show the same type but not the same number of functional groups. Details are reported in sections 4.1-3.

Moreover, lower toxicity of the target is also expected since the phthalate DEHP is specified as an impurity of the source but not of the target compound. Actually, the low concentrations of DEHP present as an impurity showed no significant influence on the outcome of toxicity studies. Thus, the hazard values established for the source substance constitute a worst-case because the target substance is less potent in terms of biological effects (“inert”).

For the source chemical, a comprehensive database is available which shows that the substance has a low toxicity profile. Irritating/corrosion effects on skin and eye, and skin sensitization were not observed. An OECD 422 screening test did not indicate developmental toxicity effects. Only marginal effects on reproductive organs were considered as not adverse. Observed changes in clinical chemistry parameters and liver weights of lower toxicological relevance could have been caused by an adaptive response. The target chemical is expected to share the low toxicity profile due to similar structural features.

Although the target and source chemicals are proposed by OECD Toolbox (v. 4.1) profiling to be attributed to the OECD HPV Chemical Category of High molecular weight phthalate esters this not constructive for the prediction of (eco-) toxicological effects. Well established differences in toxicokinetics (absorption, metabolism) of the source chemical and supporting compounds in comparison to phthalate esters such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, EC No 204-211-0, CAS No 117-81-7) can endorse this view and provide an explanation for the divergence in the biological activity found in toxicity and ecotoxicity studies. All these outlined arguments will be elucidated in more detail in the following sections.

2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
The compound to be registered, tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate (EC No 221-508-0, CAS No 3126-80-5), with the IUPAC name 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate, is a mono constituent substance in the physical form of a liquid (also identified as tetra(2-ethylhexyl) pyromellitate, common name tetraoctyl pyromellitate, abbreviation TOPM). The purity grade is ≥ 99 % (w/w), with water and ethanol as main impurities.

The source, specified as tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate (EC No 222-020-0, CAS No 3319-31-1), is also a mono constituent chemical. The following alternative names are known:1,2,4-tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate, TOTM, tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate, and tris(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate. The common name is trioctyl trimellitate. According to information on the appearance, physical state, and colour of the registered source substance, the substance is liquid at standard temperature and pressure with pale yellow colour and faint odour. The purity grade is in the range between 98.29% and 100% (w/w). Chemical analysis revealed bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (abbreviation DEHP, EC No 204-211-0, CAS No 117-81-7) as an impurity which is found in the concentration range from 0.0 to 0.07% (w/w), with a typical concentration of 0.05% (w/w). The identity of other impurities is unknown.

Identity of the source and target substance:

Chemical Target substance Source substance
EC number 221-508-0 222-020-0
EC name Tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) Tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate
benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate
CAS number 3126-80-5 3319-31-1
IUPAC name 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) Tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate
benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate
Other names Tetra(2-ethylhexyl) pyromellitate, 1,2,4-tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate, TOTM, tris(2-ethylhexyl)
tetraoctyl pyromellitate, trimellitate, trioctyl trimellitate.
abbreviation TOPM
Molecular formula C33H54O6 C33H54O6
Smiles CCCCC(CC)COC(=O)c1cc(C(=O)OCC CCCCC(CC)COC(=O)c1ccc(C(=O)OCC(CC)CCCC)c(c1)C(=O)OCC(CC)CCCC
(CC)CCCC)c(cc1C(=O)OCC(CC)CCCC)C(=O)OCC(CC)CCCC
Molecular weight 702.507 g/mol 546.7783
Description Discrete chemical, mono constituent, organic Discrete chemical, mono constituent, organic
Physical form Liquid at 25°C Liquid at 25°C
Purity grade ≥ 99 % (w/w) 98.29%-100% (w/w)
Impurities Water and ethanol 0.0-0.07% (w/w) bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (EC No 204-211-0),
and impurities of unknown identity

3. ANALOGUE APPROACH JUSTIFICATION
[Summarise here based on available experimental data how these results verify that the read-across is justified]

Functional groups and substituents
The chemical structures of the target and the source substances can be described as esters of 2-ethylhexanol with pyromellitic acid and trimellitic acid, respectively. Four or three formic acid residues which show an ester bond with branched alkane substituents are attached to an aromatic ring (benzol), respectively. The organic functional groups are specified in Table 3 (see attached 'Read-across justification' in IUCLID section 13.2) which shows that the target and the source chemical are characterized by the same type of organic functional groups. Only the number of ‘carboxylic acid esters’ with ‘alkanes, branched with tertiary carbon’ is varying (4 vs 3, respectively). The sub-structure feature, which is shared by phthalates as well as the source and target compound, is phthalic acid, synonym 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. The conformation, i.e. spatial arrangement of atoms in the molecules of the target and the source substance, is flexible.

PubChem substructure similarity features
The structural similarity of the target and source read-across substances has in addition been verified by application of PubChem substructure similarity features which are implemented in OECD Toolbox (v. 4.1).

Method: The PubChem generates a substructure fingerprint for each chemical structure. These fingerprints are used for similarity neighboring. In this context, a substructure is a fragment of chemical structure. A fingerprint is an ordered list of binary (1/0) bits. Each bit represents a Boolean determination of specific atom or test features. 7 groups of PubChem features have been defined:
• Hierarchical element counts;
• Rings;
• Simple atom pairs;
• Simple atom nearest neighbors;
• Detailed atom neighbors;
• Simple SMARTS patterns (SMART is a language that allows specifying substructures by using rules that are straightforward extensions of SMILES);
• Complex SMARTS patterns.

Results: The target compound shares 111 out of 112 substructure features with the source whereas the source compound shares 111 out of 113 substructure

The assessment of similarities in compounds the organism is exposed to relies on experimental data regarding the toxicokinetics of tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate as well as the prediction of hydrolysis products and metabolites by OECD Toolbox (v. 4.1) both for the source and target read-across substance. Hydrolysis of ester bonds by intestinal and liver esterases is also well established (Younggil, 2001). Moreover, substantial information on in vivo metabolism of phthalates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP, CAS No 4376-20-9, EC No 224-477-1) is considered since differences in metabolism can endorse the view that tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate are less toxic than low molecular weight phthalates.

Please refer to IUCLID section 7.1.1 'Basic toxicokinetis' and IUCLID section 13.2 'read-across justification' for detiailed information about absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the source and target substance.

Prediction of metabolites by the hydrolysis simulator (acidic) and hydrolysis simulator (basic) resulted in an identical set of 7 metabolites in each case for tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate, and a set of 8 metabolites for tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate. Obviously, the prediction is based on the assumption that the ester bonds of trimellitic acid and pyromellitic acid, respectively, are successively hydrolysed, with the result that all of the possible isomers are released. An overview of predicted hydrolysis products and compounds yielded by the metabolism simulators is presented below, along with experimental data.

Summary of toxicokinetics with conclusions on similarities:

Hydrolysis by esterases is considered to be an important first step in the oral absorption of ortho-phthalates. The potential for such hydrolysis to occur with the source substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate has been examined in an in-vitro study using rat gut homogenate. There was no evidence of hydrolysis occurring wheras the corresponding phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (abbreviation DEHP, EC No 204-211-0, CAS No 117-81-7), was significantly hydrolysed.
The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of the radiolabeled source substance have been investigated in the rat following oral administration of a single dose. Recovery of the administered dose was 94%, with approximately 75% eliminated unchanged in the faeces, 16.3% found in the urine and 1.9% in expired air. Residual radioactivity in the carcass after 6 days was <0.6% of the administered dose. Findings indicate that the compound may be partially hydrolysed in the gastro-intestinal tract to 2-ethylhexan-1-ol and the corresponding di-ester and, following further hydrolysis, the mono-ester. Only 2-ethylhexanol and a single isomer of the monoester (i.e. mono-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate) appear to be absorbed. Following absorption, 2-ethylhexanol was extensively metabolised with metabolites eliminated in the urine and as expired 14CO2. There was no evident metabolism of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate, this being eliminated unchanged. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was bi-phasic with half-lives of 3.1 and 42 hours.
When barriers to absorption are by-passed by intravenous administration, the source chemical has been found to distribute mainly in the liver, lungs and spleen. Excretion of the substance or its metabolites over 14 days was slow with 21.3% and 2.8% of the administered dose found in the faeces and urine, respectively, suggesting a half-life of approximately 40 days. While data from the intravenous route may suggest a possible concern for potential bioaccumulation, the substance is poorly absorbed by the oral route, and the kinetics of urinary elimination suggest a far shorter half-life, indicating a lower potential for bioaccumulation.
An in vitro dermal absorption study using full-thickness skin samples in a Franz diffusion cell system showed that the compound is not systemically bioavailable after dermal exposure. This finding is supported by the results of the IH SkinPerm model. Due to the low vapor pressure, a significant respiratory uptake from airborne vapors can be excluded.

Regarding similarities in chemical structures, physico-chemical properties (see below), and in addition results of OECD Toolbox profiling, similar toxicokinetic characteristics are expected for the target substance. This means that the ester bonds of tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate will probably be successively hydrolysed at a low rate in the gastrointestinal tract. The hydrolysis products 2-ethylhexan-1-ol and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) pyromellitate will likely be absorbed to a low extend. 2-Ethylhexan-1-ol but not the mono-ester will undergo further phase-I metabolism. There is no evidence that carboxyl groups of the source and target compounds are modified during phase I-metabolism, or metabolites are produced which play a role for the toxicological behavior of phthalates.
In conclusion, except for the hydrolysis product 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, the biotransformation products or metabolites of the source and target compound are similar as they show the same type but not the same number of functional groups. Available toxicokinetic data may imply that the extend of monoester formation in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the absorption and systemic bioavailability decreases with an increasing number of ester bonds (2 ester bonds occur in phthalates, 3 in the source substance, 4 in the target substance). Therefore, it seems to be plausible that the gastrointestinal absorption of hydrolysis products of the target substance, i.e. the potential metabolites 2-ethylhexan-1-ol and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) pyromellitate, is very low. The latter metabolite will possibly not undergo a phase-I metabolism but rather be excreted unchanged in the urine, similarly to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate. Especially due to low water solubility < 1 mg/L, the target substance is predicted by the IH SkinPerm model to be not absorbed through the skin. The low volatility of the target substance as well as the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Po/w of 6.01) will obviate a significant respiratory uptake


Synopsis of physico-chemical properties
Pyromelliate (Target) TOTM (Source)
Physical state Liquid at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa Liquid at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa
Melting / freezing point -34°C at 101,3kPa (exp.) -43 °C at 101.3 kPa (exp.)
Boiling point 573.5 °C (QSAR, SPARC by ARChem) 355 °C (exp.)
Relative density 0.9908 g/cm3 at 25 °C 0.9885 g/cm3
Granulometry Not applicable (liquid state) Not applicable (liquid state)
Vapour pressure 2.09E-9 hPa (QSAR, MPBPWIN™ 6.8E-10 hPa at 25 °C (exp.)
by EPI Suite v4.1)
Partition coefficient
n-octanol/water (log value) 6.01 (exp.) 8.00 at 25 °C and pH 4.8 (exp.)
Water solubility < 1 mg/L at 30 °C (exp.) 3.06 µg/L at 25 °C (exp.)
(identical to the cut-off value for insolubility
in water according to ECHA guidance)
Surface tension Study scientifically not necessary in accordance with ECHA guidance
Flash point 262 °C (exp.) 224 °C (exp.)
Autoflammability / self-ignition temperature Study scientifically not necessary, flash point >200 °C at 101.3 kPa
Flammability Study scientifically not necessary, flash point >200 °C at 101.3 kPa
Explosive properties Study scientifically not necessary - the substance contains no chemical groups associated with explosive properties.
Oxidising properties Based on a consideration of the chemical structure of the substance, oxidising properties do not
need to be assessed.
Stability in organic solvents and
identity of relevant degradation products The stability of the substance in organic solvents is not considered to be critical.
Dissociation constant Study scientifically not necessary - the substance does not contain any functional groups that dissociate.
Viscosity 1.7 cm2/s at 40°C 0.87 cm2/s at 40 °C (kinematic viscosity, exp.)
(kinematic viscosity, exp.)
*Published data, cf. UNEP (2002) and ECHA (2013-2017)

Based on experimental data and QSARs, the relevant physico-chemical properties of the source and target substance are similar. This supports the view that their pattern of biological effects and the underlying mechanisms may also show analogies.

The assessment of similarities in compounds the organism is exposed to (section 4.2), with reference to the corresponding Assessment Element 2.1 of the RAAF document (ECHA, 2017), relies on experimental data for the source compound and predictions (OECD Toolbox, IH SkinPerm model) combined with theoretical considerations for the target compound. Due to a very low oral and dermal absorption rate with very low systemic bioavailability, non-common compounds (with the same type but not the same number of functional groups) are considered as not relevant in vivo. On this basis, the assessment option “acceptable with medium confidence” is chosen.

Both the source and supporting compound have shown a low toxicity profile, without local and systemic toxicity effects except for minor findings, which were regarded as non-adverse, after repeated exposure to the supporting chemical. More in detail, in a Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test according to OECD TG 422 using 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid, trioctyl ester some irregularities in clinical-chemistry parameters were noted in male and female rats at the mid and/or high dose level (125 and 500 mg/kg bw/day orally, respectively). At 500 mg/kg bw/day significant changes in liver weights of females were recorded. These findings may be attributed to treatment but could represent an adaptive response.

The information presented in paragraph 4.3 suggests that the hypothesis of common underlying biological mechanisms, both in qualitative and quantitative aspects (Assessment Elements 2.2 and 2.3 according to the RAAF-document, see ECHA, 2017) is acceptable. With respect to the fact that no toxicity studies for the target compound are available, the assessment option “acceptable with just sufficient confidence” may be appropriate. For the specific case, the Assessment Elements 2.4 (Exposure to other compounds than to those linked to the prediction) and 2.5 (Occurrence of other effects than covered by the hypothesis and justification) are considered as not relevant.

Repeated dose toxicity
Due to the low vapor pressure and the absence of dermal absorption, both of the source and target substance, repeated dose toxicity testing via the inhalation and dermal route is not necessary.
Oral sub-acute exposure of rats to tris (2-ethylhexyl) 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate, and the supporting chemical tris (2-ethylhexyl) 1,2,4-benzene-tricarboxylic acid, trioctyl ester did not induce significant adverse findings. Both the source and target compound are not categorized for repeated dose toxicity (HESS, see Annex: profiling with OECD Tollbox v.4.1). Thus, it is expected that the target compound would not be toxic when repeated oral doses are administered.

4. DATA MATRIX
see Section 13.2 'Read across justification' and 'Data Matrix'
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Remarks:
Read-across justification
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Remarks:
Toxicokinetic
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Crj: CD(SD)
Sex:
male/female
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 days
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Remarks:
vehicel control (corn oil)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 male and 5 female rats per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control:
No
Other examinations:
No
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No abnormality was detected during the study.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No abnormality was detected during the study.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The mean body weight of treatment groups of rats for males and females had no significant differences from the controls during the course of the study.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups throughout treatment and recovery periods for both sexes.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
at the end of dosing
Males and females : No dose-related significant changes were observed. In the examination of blood coagulating system, prothrombin time for males was slightly prolonged, but they were considered within the physiological fluctuation. For females, no significant changes in all test items.

after recovering period
Males : Haemoglobin was slightly increased for males at 1000 mg/kg group, but they were considered within the physiological fluctuation. In the examination of blood coagulation system, no significant changes were observed in all test items.
Females : No significant change in all tests.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
at the end of dosing
Males : No dose-related significant adverse treatment-related effect in clinical chemistry.
Females : At 300, and 1,000 mg/kg dosing, chlorine contents were low.

after recovering period
Males : At 1,000 mg/kg dosing, potassium contents were slightly high.
Females : At 1,000 mg/kg dosing, GOT were slightly high. But both changes were considered to be no meaning, because at the end of treatment these changes were not recognised.
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
at the end of dosing
Males and Female: At 1,000 mg/kg dosing, some of rats (both sexes), amounts of urinary increased, but the mean urinary specific gravity values in the 1,000 mg/kg dosing group was not significant change from control group.

after recovering period
Males and Females: No dose-related significant change in all tests.
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Organ weight changes:
at the end of dosing
Male : No dose-related change in all tested organs.
Female : Relative liver weight were slightly increased at 100 mg/kg dosing, but no doserelated change. Other organs, no significant change.

after recovering period:
Males : At 1,000 mg/kg dosing, relative kidney weight were slightly low.
Female : At 1,000 mg/kg dosing, absolute and relative adrenal weight were slightly high. But both changes were considered no related to dosing and recovering of this chemical.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
at the end of dosing
Males : Coloured patch/zone of lungs were observed 1 of 100 mg/kg, 2 of 300 mg/kg and 3 animals of 1,000 mg/kg dosing group. Also hypertrophy of the kidney,
hypertrophy of parathyroid, and etc. were observed. Amounts of eosinophilic body in the kidney were slightly increased in dosing group. But all these changes
were considered no related the dosing and recovering of this chemical, because the degree and rate of changes were same of all the group included control.
Females : Red patch/zone of thymus dilated lumen of the uterus and etc. were observed. But all these changes were considered no related the dosing and recovering of this chemical, because the degree and rate of changes were same of all the group included control.

after recovering period:
Males and Females: No dose-related significant change in all tests.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Any changes seen can be considered to be spontaneous and not related to treatment with tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:

HAEMATOLOGY: See attached Table

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: See attached Table

URINALYSIS: See attached Table

ORGAN WEIGHTS: See attached Table

GROSS PATHOLOGY: See attached Table

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC: See attached Table

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: The absence of effects in animals given 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate.
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Tables attached (Repeated Dose 28 -day Oral Toxicity Study_relevant tables.pdf)

Conclusions:
No test substance related changes were noted in terms of clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, and haematology, blood chemical examination, urinalysis, and pathological findings. The NOEL for repeated dose toxicity for 28 days is considered to be 1,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes. This result can be considered the same for the target substance.
Executive summary:

This 28 -day repeated dose oral toxicity study was conducted according to Guidelines for 28 day repeated dose toxicity testing of chemicals Japan, similar to OECD Guideline 407 and in compliance with GLP criteria. Five rats per sex per dose were exposed once daily via gavage to 0 (vehicle corn oil), 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day of the source test substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate for 28 days. The post observation period was 2 weeks for 0 and 1,000 mg/kg/day dose.

No test substance related changes were noted in terms of clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, and haematology, blood chemical examination, urinalysis, and pathological findings. The NOEL for repeated dose toxicity for 28 days is considered to be 1,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes. This can be similarly transferred to the target substance tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate, due to strong structural analogies.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
Good quality due to guideline study.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Read-across - Repeated dose toxicity. via oral route

The 28 -day repeated dose oral toxicity key study (MHW Japan, 1996b) was conducted according to Guidelines for 28 day repeated dose toxicity testing of chemicals Japan, similar to OECD Guideline 407 and in compliance with GLP criteria. The study has been conducted with the read-across source substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate. Five rats per sex per dose were exposed once daily via gavage to 0 (vehicle corn oil), 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day of teh source substance for 28 days. The post observation period was 2 weeks for 0 and 1,000 mg/kg/day dose.

No test substance related changes were noted in terms of clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, and haematology, blood chemical examination, urinalysis, and pathological findings. The NOEL for repeated dose toxicity for 28 days is considered to be 1,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes. This can be similarly transferred to the target substance tetrakis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate, due to strong structural analogies.

Justification for classification or non-classification

No significant toxicity was observed at a concentration of 1000 mg/kg/day in an oral repeated dose study of 28 days duration with the read-across source substance tris(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate.

According to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 classification and labelling is not indicated for repeated dose toxicity, as clear functional disturbances or morphological changes were not apparent, the effects that were observed being minor, probably adaptive, changes.

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