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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM (1988) Standard practice for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians. Report No. E-729-88. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
Deviations:
not specified
Remarks:
Test is reported to "closely follow" guideline
Principles of method if other than guideline:
96-hour static toxicity tests on three species of fish at both alevin and juvenile life stages.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material:
Not applicable
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Prepared by either pipetting appropriate aliquants of stock solution or additing test item directly into test vessels.
Test organisms (species):
other: Arctic Grayling, Coho Salmon, Rainbow Trout
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISMS
- Common names: arctic grayling, coho salmon and rainbow trout
- Source:
--Arctic Grayling: Flathead Salmon Hatchery, Somers, Montana
--Coho Salmon: Clear State Hatchery, Clear, Alaska
--Rainbow Trout: Ennis National Fish Hatchery, Ennis, Montana
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Alevin, juveniles (separate tests)
-Length and weight at study initiation:
--Arctic Grayling:
---Alevins: 15.0 ± 0.5 mm, 0.02 g
---Juveniles: 45.5 ± 2.5 mm, 0.51 ± 0.10 g
--Coho salmon:
---Alevins: 29.8 ± 1.9 mm, 0.24 ± 0.04 g
---Juveniles: 39.0 ± 2.2 mm, 0.41 ± 0.08 g
--Rainbow Trout:
---Alevins: 20.8 ± 2.1 mm, 0.10 ± 0.03 g
---Juveniles: 39.0 ± 2.2 mm, 0.41 ± 0.08 g
-Eggs & alevins in vertical flow incubator, Temp: 12 ± 2°C
-Swim-up fry in fiberglass troughs, juveniles in circular tanks, Temp: 13 ± 2°C.
- Feeding: Standard commericial salmon diet.
-Acclimatization: 24 hours for alevins, 2 days for juveniles. No feeding during accilmatization
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
no
Hardness:
Mean: 41 mg/L, range: 40 - 43 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
12 ± 1°C
pH:
7.1 - 8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
≥ 40 % saturation
Salinity:
not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
A geometric series of 6 to 10 nominal concentrations (no further details provided)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
--Alevins: 3.8 L glass jars filled with 3 L test solution
--Juveniles: 19.6 L glass japs filled with 15 L test solution
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10 (for > 1.2 g juveniles 2 groups of 5 were used)
- Biomass loading rate: ≤ 0.8 g/L
- Feeding during test: None

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Reconsituted soft water prepared as recommended by ASTM 1998
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
16.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Arctic greyling alevins. 95% CL: 14.3 - 19.7 mg/L. Corresponding to 29.1 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Arctic greyling juvelines. 95% CL: 12.1 - 17.2 mg/L. Corresponding to 24.9 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
33.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Coho salmon alevins. 95% CL: 27.7 - 60.6 mg/L. Corresponding to 58.0 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
14.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Coho salmon juveniles. 95% CL: 11.8 - 16.7 mg/L. Corresponding to 24.4 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
9.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Rainbow trout alevins. 95% CL: 7.0 - 11.8 mg/L. Corresponding to 15.7 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
10.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
gold
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Rainbow trout juveniles. 95% CL: 8.6 - 13.4 mg/L. Corresponding to 18.5 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid
Details on results:
Mortality in control: None
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals calculated by method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
LC50 values were determined for three species of fish, at two life stages. The lowest 96-hour LC50 is 9.1 mg Au/L for rainbow trout alevins. This corresponds to a 96-hour LC50 value of 15.7 mg/L based on tetrachloroauric acid.
Executive summary:

Data are available from a published, near guideline 96-hour toxicity test on three species of fish at alevin and juvenile life stages (Buhl and Hamilton 1991). The test using tetrachloroauric acid was carried out with a geometric series of 6 -10 nominal gold concentrations. Results are reported as nominal gold concentrations. Despite the deviations from a guideline study, this study is considered acceptable as the key study for this endpoint.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Toxicity test conducted with the test item, gold (III) chloride trihydrate. Test conducted according to standard guidelines with minor limitations in reporting. GLP compliance is not reported.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Test carried out under UN-EN ISO 17025.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Stock solution prepared by dissolving test material in deionised water. The stock solution was further dissolved in test media to achieve test concentrations.
- Controls: yes
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: zebrafish
- Strain: not reported
- Source: not reported
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not reported
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): not reported
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not reported
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): not reported
- Type and amount of food: not reported

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
No.
Hardness:
Not reported.
Test temperature:
Not reported.
pH:
Not reported.
Dissolved oxygen:
Not reported.
Salinity:
Not applicable.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
2 mg/L (2.5 µM Au)
Details on test conditions:
EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortality and adverse effects after 96 hours of exposure to the test item

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: 2 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The use of a single concentration was based on the derivation of a threshold concentration (TC) from reliable algae and acute Daphnia toxicity data (OECD 126).
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: No mortality at the threshold concentration.
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: visible adverse effects
Remarks on result:
other: No visible adverse effects at the threshold concentration.
Details on results:
No visible adverse effects or mortality observed in fish at 2 mg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Positive control group containing potassium dichromate showed EC50 values within the range of the historical control data, ensuring the quality of the test.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
No visible adverse effects or mortality observed in fish at 2 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of gold (III) chloride trihydrate was tested on Brachydanio rerio following the OECD 203 guideline. Organisms were exposed to the test item at a single concentration of 2 mg/L for 96 hours.

No visible adverse effects or mortality observed in fish at 2 mg/L. This study is reliable with restrictions as it was conducted according to standard guideline, however there was no analytical monitoring and there are some deficiencies in methods description and in reporting results.

Description of key information

LC50 values were determined for three species of fish, at two life stages. The lowest 96-hour LC50 is 9.1 mg Au/L for rainbow trout alevins. This corresponds to a 96-hour LC50 value of 15.7 mg/L based on tetrachloroauric acid. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
15.7 mg/L

Additional information

Data are available from a published, near guideline 96-hour toxicity test on three species of fish at alevin and juvenile life stages (Buhl & Hamilton 1991). The test using tetrachloroauric acid was carried out with a geometric series of 6 -10 nominal gold concentrations. Results are reported as nominal gold concentrations. Despite the deviations from a guideline study, this study is considered acceptable as the key study for this endpoint.

Supporting data are available from published study conducted with Danio rerio according to the OECD 203 guideline (Garcia-Cambero 2013). Fish were exposed to gold (III) chloride trihydrate

at single concentration of 2 mg/L for 96 hours.This study is considered suitable as a supporting study for this endpoint.

The acute toxicity of gold (III) chloride to embryos of Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes was tested in a study according to OECD 212 guideline (Nam et al. 2014). Embryos of Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes were exposed to a range of 10 or 5 nominal concentrations for 168 hours post-fertilisation and for 16 days post-fertilisation, respectively. This study is considered unreliable as

the toxicity values have limitation due to wide gap between the two flanking concentrations of 0.1 and 5.2 mg/L for D. rerio and 4 and 5 mg/L for O. latipes.

Therefore, the study has been disregarded.