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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Due to chelating agents in the standard test media that are known to interact with the test substance, EPA 'Moderately hard water' medium was used.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Deviation from test guideline as EPA 'Moderately hard water' medium was used. This is due to chelating agents in the standard test media that are known to interact with the test substance.
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Range finder: Samples taken from the highest and lowest test concentrations at 0 hours
Definitve test: Samples collected at 0 and 48 hours in the control and all test solutions
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Test organisms were obtained from continuous laboratory cultures held at Brixham environental laboratory. Stock cultures of Daphnia magna were maintained in water medium the same as the test dilution water at 20 +- 2°C, with a phtoperiod of 16 hours light 8 hours dark and 20 minute transition periods. Daphnia were fed daily on Chlorella vulgaris prior to the test.

aphnia magna <24 hours old and obtained from a single culture vessel for each test were used.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
153 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
Range finder test: 18.9 - 19.3°C
Definitive test: 18.97 - 19.9°C
pH:
Range finder test: 7.54 - 8.44
Definitve test: 7.86 - 8.48
Dissolved oxygen:
Range finder test: 7.69 - 8.51 mg/L
Definitve test: 8.47 - 9.24 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Range finder test: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/L (nominal concentrations)
Definitive test: 0.30, 0.95, 3.1, 9.8, 31 and 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
Range finder test: Two replicates per treatment and a total of 10 Daphnia per treatment
Definitve test: 4 replicates per treatment and a total of 20 Daphnia per treatment
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Tetrachloroauric acid concentration calculated from measured gold concentration. 95% confidence interval: 2.5 - 9.3 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% confidence interval: 3.1 - 9.8 mg/L
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
No immobility or signs of stress observed in the control. Dissolved oxygen concentration remained >3mg/L
Conclusions:
The 48-hour EC50 for tetrachloroauric acid was reported as 4.8 mg/L (measured concentration).
Executive summary:

Data are available from a GLP-compliant study following OECD Guideline 202, with a minor deviation in the test media used due to potential for the standard media to interfere with the test item. A range-finding test and definitive test were carried out using 6 test concentrations and a control. Four replicates were used and results were reported based on measured concentrations and as nominal tetrachloroauric acid concentrations (Brixham 2012). This study is considered to be suitable for use as a key study for this endpoint. The 48-hour EC50 for tetrachloroauric acid was reported as 4.8 mg/L (measured concentration).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Toxicity tests conducted with the gold (III) substance gold chloride (AuCl3). Tests conducted according to standard guidelines with minor limitations in reporting. GLP compliance is not reported. Effect concentrations have been converted to concentrations of tetrachloroauric acid based on molecular weight.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
A stock solution of 1000 mg Au(III)/L was prepared in deionised water and the stock solution was diluted with OECD M4 medium to obtain the treatment solutions.
Test organisms (species):
other: Daphnia magna, Simocephalus mixtus and Moina macrocopa
Details on test organisms:
- Test species: Daphnia magna, Simocephalus mixtus and Moina macrocopa
- Source: D. magna obtained from the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER, Inchon, Korea), M. macrocopa obtained from the Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT, Daejeon, Korea) and S. mixtus collected from a farm pondin Namyangju, Korea.
- Age at test start: < 24 hours old
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
24 h for S. mixtus due to food stress
Test temperature:
21 C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1, 1.5, 3, 5 and 10 mg Au(III)/L for D. magna and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 1 and 1.5 mg Au(III)/L for M. macrocopa and S. mixtus.
Maximum nominal concentration of 1.8 mg Cl-/L for D. magna and S. mixtus and 0.27 mg Cl-/L for M. macrocopa.
Details on test conditions:
- Medium: M4 medium
- Photoperiod: 16:8 h light:dark photoperiod
- Feeding: Daily with blue-green algae (Spirulina)
- Test vessel: 35 mL flat-bottomed glass vial containing 10 mL test solution
- Replicates: 4
- Number of organisms per replicate: 5
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.04 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
tetrachloroauric acid
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Daphnia magna; effect concentrations reported based on Au(III), converted to tetrachloroauric acid.
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.04 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
tetrachloroauric acid
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Moina macrocopa; effect concentrations reported based on Au(III), converted to tetrachloroauric acid.
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
4.05 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
tetrachloroauric acid
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Simocephalus mixtus; effect concentrations reported based on Au(III), converted to tetrachloroauric acid.
Details on results:
The concentrations of Au(III) after the exposure duration were measured as 1.77 +/- 0.03 mg/L and 12.37 +/- 0.36 mg/L at 48 h for 1.5 and 10 mg/L dissolved in M4 media. Measured concentrations for M4 media (11.1 to 23.7%) were increased compared to nominal concentrations. Nominal concentrations were used for the calculation and reporting of results.

Effect concentrations reported in study (nominal, based on Au(III)):
24-h EC50 (D. magna, mobility) = 0.64 mg/L (95% CL: 0.54-0.76 mg/L)
48-h EC50 (D. magna, mobility) = 0.64 mg/L (95% CL: 0.54-0.76 mg/L)
48-h NOEC (D. magna, mobility) = 0.5 mg/L
48-h LOEC (D. magna, mobility) = 0.6 mg/L
24-h LC50 (S. mixtux, mortality) = 2.63 mg/L (95% CL: 2.32-2.97 mg/L)
24-h EC50 (S. mixtux, mobility) = 2.35 mg/L (95% CL: 1.86-2.97 mg/L)
48-h NOEC (S. mixtux, mortality and mobility) = 0.5 mg/L
48-h LOEC (S. mixtux, mortality and mobility) = 0.6 mg/L
24-h EC50 (M. macrocopa, mobility) = 0.6 mg/L (95% CL: 0.53-0.67 mg/L)
24-h LC50 (M. macrocopa, mortality) = 0.62 mg/L (95% CL: 0.55-0.6 mg/L)
48-h NOEC (M. macrocopa mobility) = 0.6 mg/L
48-h LOEC (M. macrocopa, mobility) = 0.7 mg/L
48-h NOEC (M. macrocopa mortality) = 0.5 mg/L
48-h LOEC (M. macrocopa, mortality) = 0.6 mg/L
Reported statistics and error estimates:
L(E)C50 values and corresponding 95% confidence limits were estimated using the Trimmed-Spearman-Karber (TSK) Program.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Results reported in the study have been converted to concentrations of tetrachloroauric acid based on molecular weight. The 48-h EC50 was determined to be 1.04 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (0.6 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for D. magna and M. macrocopa, and the 24-h EC50 was 4.02 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (2.35 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for S. mixtus.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of gold (III) chloride was assessed for Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa and Simocephalus mixtus. Organisms were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1, 1.5, 3, 5 and 10 mg Au(III)/L for D. magna and 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 1 and 1.5 mg Au(III)/L for M. macrocopa and S. mixtus for 48 hours in M4 medium. This study is reliable with restrictions as it was conducted according to standard guideline and was well-reported, but no information on GLP compliance was reported.

The 48-h EC50 was determined to be 1.04 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (0.6 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for D. magna and M. macrocopa, and the 24-h EC50 was 4.02 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (2.35 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for S. mixtus. Effect concentrations have been converted to concenrations of tetrachloroauric acid, based on molecular weight.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Toxicity test conducted with the test item, gold (III) chloride trihydrate. Test conducted according to standard guidelines with minor limitations in reporting. GLP compliance is not reported.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Stock solution prepared by dissolving test material in deionised water. The stock solution was further dissolved in test media to achieve test concentrations.
- Controls: yes
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: not reported
- Source: not reported
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): not reported

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not reported

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
No.
Hardness:
Not reported.
Test temperature:
Not reported.
pH:
Not reported.
Dissolved oxygen:
Not reported.
Salinity:
Not applicable.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0.5 - 5.0 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: not reported
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: not reported
- No. of organisms per vessel: not reported
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): not reported
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): not reported

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: not reported

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not reported
- Photoperiod: not reported
- Light intensity: not reported

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : effects on mortality and behaviour were observed after the exposure period of 48 hours.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.34 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Remarks on result:
other: 95% IC: 1.14–1.58 mg/L
Details on results:
The test item, gold (III) chloride trihydrate, was shown to be toxic to Daphnia magna. The 48-h EC50 was estimated to be 1.34 mg/L (1.14–1.58, 95% IC) for D. magna.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Positive control group containing potassium dichromate showed EC50 values within the range of the historical control data, ensuring the quality of the test.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48-h EC50 was estimated to be 1.34 mg/L (1.14–1.58, 95% IC) for Daphnia magna.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of gold (III) chloride trihydrate was assessed for Daphnia magna following the OECD 202 guideline. Organisms were exposed to the test item in a range of 0.5 and 5 mg /L for 48 hours. This study is reliable with restrictions as it was conducted according to a standard guideline, however there are some deficiencies in methods description and in reporting results.

The 48-h EC50 was estimated to be 1.34 mg/L for Daphnia magna.

Description of key information

The lowest 48-h EC50 for Daphnia magna was determined to be 1.04 mg tetrachloroauric acid/L. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
1.04 mg/L

Additional information

Data are available from a GLP-compliant study following OECD Guideline 202, with a minor deviation in the test media used due to potential for the standard media to interfere with the test item. A range-finding test and definitive test were carried out using 6 test concentrations and a control. Four replicates were used and results were reported based on measured concentrations and as nominal tetrachloroauric acid concentrations (Brixham 2012). This study is considered to be suitable for use as a key study for this endpoint. The 48-hour EC50 for tetrachloroauric acid was reported as 4.8 mg/L (measured concentration).

Data are available from a published guideline study for gold (III) chloride. Tests were conducted on three aquatic invertebrate species (Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopaa nd Simocephalus mixtus

) with 8 to 9 test concentrations for 48 hours. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates with 5 test organisms per replicate and results were reported as nominal concentrations (Nam et al. 2014). Effect concentrations were converted to tetrachloroauric acid concentrations on the basis of molecular weight. The 48-h EC50 was determined to be 1.04 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (0.6 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for D. magna and M. macrocopa, and the 24-h EC50 was 4.02 mg/L tetrachloroauric acid (2.35 mg Au(III)/L) based on mobility for S. mixtus. This study is considered to be suitable for use as a supporting study for this endpoint and was used to determine aquatic PNECs as the result is lower than the EC50 determined in the short-term study with Daphnia magna (Brixham 2012).

The acute toxicity of gold (III) chloride trihydrate to invertebrates was also tested in a study according to the OECD 202 guideline (Garcia-Cambero 2013). Daphnids were exposed to the range of test item concentrations between 0.5 and 5 mg /L for 48 hours. This study is considered reliable with restrictions and is suitable to use as a supporting study for this endpoint. The 48-h EC50 was estimated to be 1.34 mg/L (1.14–1.58, 95% IC) for Daphnia magna.

Data on acute toxicity of tetra aurochloric acid are also available from a published study with Daphnia magna conducted according to OECD 202 guideline (Li et al. 2010), Daphnia magna was exposed to gold ions in form of tetraaurochloric acid in standard synthetic freshwater for 48 hours. Test included a set of three to five concentrations and the SSF control group but the test concentrations are not reported.The 48-hour LC50 for Daphnia magna was determined to be ~2 mg tetrachloroauric acid/L. Due to major deficiencies in the method description and in reporting results this study is considered not reliable.