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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Barium fluoride will dissociate in aqueous solution to form barium and fluoride ions. Reliable chronic toxicity data for fish are available for barium and fluoride. A 33-day NOEC of ≥ 1.26 mg Ba/L (≥ 1.61 mg BaF2/L) is reported for Danio rerio (Gilberg, 2014). For fluoride the 21-day NOEC is 4 mg fluoride/L in Oncorhynchus mykiss corresponding to 18.5 mg BaF2/L.

Based on the available data, it is concluded that the chronic toxicity to fish of BaF2 under normal environmental conditions is determined by the release of barium and the unbounded NOEC of ≥ 1.61 mg BaF2/L (dissolved) is considered in the CSA.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

For barium fluoride no data on long-toxicity to fish are available. As barium fluoride in water rapidly dissociates into barium and fluoride ions, it is these ions that are expected to be present in the environment and which will therefore be assessed. Reliable chronic toxicity data for fish are available for barium and fluoride.

Barium

A reliable long-term toxicity study (Klimisch 1, GLP) with Danio rerio is available for barium chloride (Gilberg, 2014). No effects were abserved at the highest test concentration of nominal 100 mg barium dichloride dihydrate/L. Therefore the NOECs (33 d, hatching success, mortality (post-hatch success), numbers of healthy fish, length of the surviving fish, dry weight of the surviving fish) based on nominal concentrations were >=100 mg barium dichloride dihydrate/L. Since the recovery rates (RR) of the analytical verification of the test material in test solution are < 80% the results are given as actual (geometric mean measured) concentrations:  

a) NOEC ≥ 40.3 mg Ba/L (≥ 51.4 mg BaF2/L) based on total barium concentration.

b) NOEC ≥ 1.26 mg Ba/L (≥ 1.61 mg BaF2/L) based on dissolved barium concentration.

Since the recovery rates (RR) of the analytical verification of the test material in test solution are < 80% the results are given as actual (geometric mean measured) concentrations.

Fluoride

A long-term NOEC is available for fluoride from a 21-day study with Oncorhynchus mykiss. In this study a LC5 value of 4 mg fluoride/L (corresponding to 18.5 mg BaF2/L) was reported which is considered equivalent to the NOEC for mortality. The test was conducted in very soft (12 mg CaCO3/L) natural water with daily renewal of the test water.

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