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Toxicological information

Basic toxicokinetics

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics in vivo
Type of information:
other: collection of data
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Health Council of the Netherlands. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone. Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands
Author:
Health Council of the Netherlands
Year:
2012
Bibliographic source:
Health Council of the Netherlands. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone. Healthbased recommended occupational exposure limit. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2012; publication no. 2012/27.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Metabolite characterisation studies

Metabolites identified:
yes

Any other information on results incl. tables

Benzoquinone can be conjugated with glutathione resulting in mono-, di-, and tri-glutathione conjugates which are detectable in the bile. The glutathione conjugates can be further metabolised to cysteine conjugates and mercapturic acids. The primary route of elimination is via the urine (> 85%) in the form of water soluble metabolites. The major urinary metabolites are glucuronide conjugates (45-56%) and sulphate conjugates (19-43%). Mercapturic acids are present at lower levels (< 5%). Only a small fraction (about 1-3%) is excreted unchanged in the urine.

For benzoquinone no information is available on kinetics after inhalation.

Benzoquinone is reported to be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and subcutaneous tissue. It is excreted partly unchanged and partly as hydroquinone, the major proportion of which is eliminated as conjugates. No quantitative information was available.

Applicant's summary and conclusion