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Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

The mutagenicity potential of the test substance was evaluated using the OECD 471 bacterial reverse mutation assay. S. typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100, and E. coli WP2 uvr A were tested both with and without S9 activation. Results were negative under all conditions.

In addition, the analogue substance, Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-13 alkyl derivatives, sodium salt was evaluated using OECD 476 for its potential to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to concentrations of 0, 0.6, 1, 1.8, 3, and 6 ug/ml without S9, and 0, 6, 10, 18, 30, and 60 ug/ml with S9. The cells were then examined for cytogenicity and mutation frequency. Ethyl methane sulfonate and 3-(20-)methylcholanthrene were used as positive control substances. Preliminary tests show the test substance was cytogenic at concentrations of 50 ug/ml or greater with metabolic activation, and 100 ug/ml or above without metabolic activation. There was no biologically significant increase in mutation frequency in the treated groups. The test substance is considered not mutagenic to CHO cells both in the presence and absence of S9.

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Oct. 7, 2010-Nov. 11, 2010
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
GLP study conducted on target substance, Benzenesulfonic acid, mono-C11-13-branched alkyl derivs. EC 271-807-5, CAS 68608-88-8.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Test Article I.D.: Sulfonic acid Branched Alkylate Derivative
Test Article Batch No.: MIBL008639
Test Article CAS No.: 68608-88-8
Test Article Purity: 100%
Test Article Description: Viscous brown liquid
Storage Conditions: Room temperature, protected from direct sunlight (in foil) without desiccant
Target gene:
Tester strains TA98 and TA1537 are reverted from histidine dependence (auxotrophy) to histidine independence (prototrophy) by frameshift mutagens. Tester strain TA1535 is reverted by mutagens that cause basepair substitutions. Tester strain TA100 is reverted by mutagens that cause both frameshift and basepair substitution mutations. Specificity of the reversion mechanism in E. coli is sensitive to basepair substitution mutations, rather than frameshift mutations.
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from rat livers induced with Aroclor 1254
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
The dose levels tested were 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg per plate, based on initial toxicity-mutation assay, which was used to establish the dose-range for the confirmatory mutagenicity assay.
Vehicle / solvent:
Water
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene, 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide, 9-aminoacridine, methyl methanesulfonate
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: plate incorporation
0.5 ml of S9 or Sham mix, 100 ul of tester strain, 50 ul of vehicle, and test article or positive control, will be added to 2.0 ml of agar at 45 +/- 2 degrees C.

DURATION
- Preincubation period: 12-14 hrs at 37 +/- 2 degrees C
- Exposure duration: 48-72 hrs at 37 +/- 2 degrees C
- Expression time (cells in growth medium):
- Selection time (if incubation with a selection agent):
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells):

SELECTION AGENT (mutation assays):
SPINDLE INHIBITOR (cytogenetic assays):
STAIN (for cytogenetic assays):

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3

NUMBER OF CELLS EVALUATED:

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: >50% reduction in number of revertants per plate relative to vehicle control

OTHER EXAMINATIONS:
- Determination of polyploidy:
- Determination of endoreplication:
- Other:

OTHER:
Evaluation criteria:
For strains TA1535 and TA1537 - positive if a 3-fold increase in mean revertants as compared to vehicle controls
For strains TA98, TA100, and WP2 uvrA - positive if a 2-fold increase in mean revertants as compared to vehicle controls
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1537
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
negative

The test substance is negative for gene mutation.
Executive summary:

Benzenesulfonic acid, mono-C11-13-branched alkyl derivs. EC 271-807-5, CAS 68608-88-8 was assessed in an in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria according to OECD 471, the test substance was found to be negative with and without metabolic activation.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
May 16, 1995-June 30, 1995
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study.
Justification for type of information:
Read Across to study conducted on Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-13 alkyl derivatives, sodium salt, As the BAB Acid isneutralized in test medium or under physiological testing conditions, i.e. when tested in vivo, the primary differences between BAB Acid and LAS Na salt are the alkyl chains, branched vs. linear, therefore given their structural and functional similarities, LAS Na salt is a good analogue for read across for instance where data is not available for BAB Acid.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 from aroclor 1254 induced rat liver
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0, 0.6, 1, 1.8, 3, 6 ug/ml without S9
0, 6, 10, 18, 30, 60 ug/ml with S9
Vehicle / solvent:
None
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
no
True negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
H0 medium
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: ethyl methane sulfonate; 3-(20-)methylcholanthrene
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium


DURATION
- Preincubation period: 1 week
- Exposure duration: 4 hrs
- Expression time (cells in growth medium): 6 days at 37 degree C for cloning efficiency study, 9 days for mutation assay


STAIN (for cytogenetic assays): Giemsa


NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 2


Evaluation criteria:
A test substance was considered mutagenic if a statistically significant dose-related increase in mutant frequency was found in concentrations with greater than 20% survival rate. The mean mutant frequency must also be significantly above the maximum spontaneous mutant frequency.
Statistics:
Statistical significance was determined by the t-test.
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
preliminary test showed cytotoxicity at >= 50 ug/ml without S9, and >= 100 ug/ml with S9.
Vehicle controls validity:
not examined
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
COMPARISON WITH HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA: In both the studies with and without S9, the mutant frequencies in the treated groups were statistically significantly higher than in the concurrent negative controls. However, the mutant frequencies in the treated groups were not significantly increased when compared to historical negative controls. There was also no dose-response relationship. The increased mutant frequency in treated groups was therefore not considered to be biologically significant.


Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested
Remarks:
Migrated from field 'Test system'.

Results of Test 1 – Without S9 Mix            

Concentration (ug/ml)

Absolute cloning efficiency (%)

Mutant frequency ( x 106)

0

82

3 ± 2

0.6

86

7 ± 1

1

85

3 ± 2

1.8

78

5 ± 2

3

86

1 ± 1

6

83

0 ± 1

EMS

83

277 ± 17

Results of Test 1 – With S9 Mix     

Concentration (ug/ml)

Absolute cloning efficiency (%)

Mutant frequency ( x 106)

0

90

2 ± 1

6

88

1 ± 1

10

84

9 ± 4

18

78

5 ± 3

30

89

3 ± 2

60

89

7 ± 2

MCA

81

91 ± 9

Results of Test 2 – Without S9 Mix

Concentration (ug/ml)

Absolute cloning efficiency (%)

Mutant frequency ( x 106)

0

96

1 ± 1

0.6

92

2 ± 3

1

95

1 ± 1

1.8

93

5 ± 2

3

90

2 ± 1

6

91

6 ± 6

EMS

90

309 ± 20

Results of Test 2 – With S9 Mix     

Concentration (ug/ml)

Absolute cloning efficiency (%)

Mutant frequency ( x 106)

0

90

2 ± 1

6

92

7 ± 3

10

88

9 ± 2

18

94

2 ± 1

30

93

2 ± 2

60

90

5 ± 1

MCA

95

89 ± 6

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information):
negative

The test substance is not mutagenic in either the presence or absence of metabolic activation.
Executive summary:

This study examined the potential of the test substance (LAS) to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to concentrations of 0, 0.6, 1, 1.8, 3, and 6 ug/ml without S9, and 0, 6, 10, 18, 30, and 60 ug/ml with S9. The cells were then examined for cytogenicity and mutation frequency. Ethyl methane sulfonate and 3-(20-)methylcholanthrene were used as positive control substances. Preliminary tests show the test substance was cytogenic at concentrations of 50 ug/ml or greater with metabolic activation, and 100 ug/ml or above without metabolic activation. There was no biologically significant increase in mutation frequency in the treated groups. The test substance is considered not mutagenic to CHO cells both in the presence and absence of S9.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Description of key information

The key study examined the potential of the test substance, analogue linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS acid), to cause mutations in the NMRI strain of mice. The primary difference between LAS acid and BABS acid is the alkyl chain, branched vs. linear. Mice (40 of males, 22-25 grams; 40 females, 20-25 grams) were exposure via oral gavage to a single dose of 1122 mg/kg bw.  After 72 hours, cells were taken from the thigh, purified by centrifugation and column chromatography,  Giemsa stained and evaluated for polychromatid erythrocytes (PCEs), the ratio of PCEs to normochromatid  erythrocytes and the number of cells with micronuclei.  No significant increase in the number of PEC with micronuclei were observed.  The test substance is considered negative (not mutagenic) in the mouse micronucleus test.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / erythrocyte micronucleus
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: chromosome aberration
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP laboratory study
Justification for type of information:
Read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach) - LAS acid.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 474 (Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Type of assay:
micronucleus assay
Species:
mouse
Strain:
NMRI
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Strain NMRI. Animals were approximately 22-26 g (male) and 20-25 g (female) and acclimated for 1 week to the test conditions (20 =/- 3 degrees C, 30-70% relative humidity, 12 hour light/dark cycle). Food was given daily and water was ad libitum. All animals were healthy at the time of test initiation.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
NaCl
Duration of treatment / exposure:
72 hours
Frequency of treatment:
single dose
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
1122 mg/kg
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
40 males and 40 females per dose
Control animals:
yes
Positive control(s):
Endoxan (cyclophosphamid)
Tissues and cell types examined:
Cells were taken from the thigh.
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
Cells were mixed with cattle serum and suspended, then centrifuged. The sediment was then resuspended. The suspension was seperated in a cellulose chromatography column. This was centrifuged, and mixed with fetal calf serum and EDTA. This was air-dried for 24 hrs and stained with Giemsa.
Evaluation criteria:
number of polychromatid erythrocytes (PCE)
ratio of PCE to normochromatid erythrocytes (NCE)
number of cells with micronucleus
Sex:
male/female
Genotoxicity:
negative
Toxicity:
no effects
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid

No significant increases in the number of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei were observed.

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results (migrated information): negative
No significant increases in the number of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei were observed.
Executive summary:

In a study with analogue LAS acid, no significant increases in the number of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei were observed. The test substance is considered negative (not mutagenic) in the mouse micronucleus test.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Additional information

Short description of key information:

The test substance is negative for gene mutation based on the results of an OECD Guideline 471 test.

The read across substance, Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-13 alkyl derivatives, sodium salt was negative for potential to cause gene mutations in mammalian cells based on the results of an OECD 476 Test.

The read across substance, Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS Acid) did not increase the number of micronuclei based in the results of an OECD 474 test.

Endpoint Conclusion:No adverse effect observed (negative)

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available on BAB acid, LAS acid and LAS Na salt, BAB acid is not considered to be mutagenic.