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Aquatic toxicity studies are available for several members of this category. Many of the historic aquatic toxicity studies used dilution of Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) instead of preparing WAF from several loading rates. These studies have been given Klimisch 3 scores (not reliable). More recent studies have utilized Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) techniques which are believed to be more reliable. However, even among WAF studies of the same substance, variable results have been observed which demonstrates the difficulty of testing these types of substances. 


Reliable studies are available for members of this category for fish (Akzo Nobel (1998a), Akzo Nobel (1999c), Inveresk (2001a), Aventis (2004), Eastman (2005), Akzo Nobel (1999e), Akzo Nobel (1999d), Safepharm Laboratories (1994)), Daphnia (Harlan Laboratories (2010f), Harlan (2010g) Harlan (2010h), Inveresk (2001b), Akzo Nobel (1998b), Eastman (2005), Akzo Nobel (1998c)) and algae (Inveresk (2001c), (Eastman (2005), Akzo Nobel (1998d), Harlan (2010i)).


The lowest LL50 determined in aquatic toxicity studies for category members is <10 mg/L and the lowest EC50 is 1.7 mg/L. The EC50 will be used to derive the aquatic PNEC.