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EC number: 701-394-3
CAS number: 1782069-81-1
The in vivo oestrogenic activity of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor
was investigated in a 14-day vitellogenin (VTG) test with juvenile
(sexually undifferentiated) fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).
4-methylbenzylidene camphor was found not to exhibit any estrogenic
activity in two yeast based estrogen receptor assays (human and rainbow
trout) in the same study (see Sections 6.6 and 7.12). Ten fish per tank
were exposed to concentrations of 10, 100, 500, 1000 4-methylbenzylidene
camphor for 14 days in a static-renewal system. The test medium was
renewed every 24 hours. The study included two controls and a solvent
control (ethanol), as well as a positive control (100 ng/L E2). Samples
of water were taken and the beginning of exposures (0 h) and just prior
to water renewal (24 h) for analytical verification of the exposure
concentrations. At the end of the exposure period fish were measured and
weighed, and frozen prior to VTG analysis on whole body homogenates.
The nominal 10, 500 and 1000 µg/L exposures, had mean measured
concentrations of 9.6 ± 1.8, 492.4 ± 102.7 and 826.1 ± 189.4 µg/L,
respectively at 0 h, and 7.4 ± 0.4, 337.5 ± 17.7, 680 ± 198.0 µg/L,
respectively after 24 h (representing 77, 69, and 82% of nominal
concentrations at 24 h). The median measured concentrations over the
whole exposure period were reported as 9, 415, and 753 µg/L. Toxic
effects such as lethargy, uncoordinated swimming, loss of equilibrium,
hyperventilation were observed at 753 µg/L 4-methylbenzylidene camphor
(median measured concentration) and this test concentration was
terminated after day 8 of exposure. Exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene
camphor significantly reduced body length and weight of fish at median
measured concentrations of 415 and 753 µg/L. 4-methylbenzylidene camphor
exposure did not result in any significant VTG induction at any exposure
concentration, which is consistent with the absence of in vitro
activity found in yeast assays conducted by the same authors (see
Section 6.6 and 7.12). The effects on length and weight are most likely
due to systemic toxicity.
This study was assigned a reliability score of 2: reliable with
restrictions for apical endpoints (length and body weight). The study
was not conducted according to an international guideline, but was
well-documented and scientifically acceptable. The VTG induction was
assigned a reliability score of 3. The VTG induction was based on whole
body homogenates of juvenile fish. The lack of specificity in terms of
sex or tissue is expected to result in low sensitivity and makes the
data difficult to interpret.
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