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Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
11.75 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
75
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 000 mg/m³
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
881.58 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of workers, taking into account that workers are considered to be working 8h/d, with inhalative volumes for 8 h/d defined in the ECHA Guidance at 6.7 m3 for base level activity and 10m3 for light activity.

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(inhalation-human))) * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Where ABS = Absorption, sRV = standard Respiratory Volume, and wRV = worker Respiratory Volume. Absorptions by inhalation and oral route are not known, therefore it was considered that oral absorption in the rat was 50% less effective than the human absorption by inhalation in accordance with ECHA Guidance.

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS(oral-rat) / ABS(inhalation-human))) * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = NOAEL(oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5 * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 1,000 mg/kg bw * (1 / 0.38 m3/kg) * 0.5 * (6.7 m3 / 10 m3)

Corrected NOAEC(systemic-inhalation) = 881.58 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
sub-acute exposure to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
141.05 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
12.5
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
1 763.16 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of workers, taking into account that workers are considered to be working 8h/d, with inhalative volumes for 8h/d defined in the ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Chapter R.8 at 6.7m3 for base level activity and 10m3 for light activity.

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (inhalation-human))) * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Where ABS = Absorption, sRV = standard Respiratory Volume, and wRV = worker Respiratory Volume. Absorptions by inhalation and oral route are not known, therefore it was assumed in line with ECHA guidance that the oral absorption in the rat was 50% less effective than the human absorption by inhalation.

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (inhalation-human)) * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5 * (sRV(human) / wRV)

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 2,000 mg/kg bw * (1 / 0.38m3 /kg) * 0.5 * (6.7m3 / 10m3)

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 1,763.16 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
3.33 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be

introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (dermal-rat) / ABS (oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 1,000 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 1,000 mg/kg bw/day

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
sub-acute exposure to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
40 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (dermal-rat) / ABS (oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 2,000 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 2,000 mg/kg bw/day

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.9 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
150
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
434.78 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of the general population, taking into account that the general population is considered as being exposed 24h/d. A sRV(rat) of 1.15m3 /kg is used in order to consider this 24h/d exposure.

Corrected NOAE (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (inhalation-human))

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 1,000 mg/kg bw * (1 / 1.15m3 /kg) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 434.78 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
sub-acute exposure to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
34.78 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
25
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
869.56 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

As the NOAEL was obtained on rats using the oral route, it must be corrected for an inhalation exposure of the general population, taking into account that the general population is considered as being exposed 24h/d. A sRV(rat) of 1.15m3 /kg is used in order to consider this 24h/d exposure.

Corrected NOAE (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (inhalation-human))

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * (1 / sRV(rat)) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 2,000 mg/kg bw * (1 / 1.15m3 /kg) * 0.5

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) = 869.57 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.67 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be

introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (dermal-rat) / ABS (oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 1,000 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 1,000 mg/kg bw/day

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
sub-acute exposure to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
20 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (oral-rat) / ABS (dermal-rat)))

Absorptions by dermal and oral routes are not known. On the assumption that, in general, dermal absorption will not be higher than oral absorption, no default factor should be

introduced when performing oral-to-dermal extrapolation.

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * ((ABS (dermal-rat) / ABS (oral-human)))

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = NOAEL (oral-rat) * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 2,000 mg/kg bw/day * 1

Corrected NOAEL (systemic-dermal) = 2,000 mg/kg bw/day

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.67 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
sub-acute exposure to chronic exposure
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
20 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
Rats to Humans
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
ECHA REACH Guidance

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population