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Description of key information

We have not tested Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides for repeat dose toxicity although in an OECD421 study the NOAEL for systemic toxicity in the parental animals was 75mg/kg bodyweight / day with the top dose of 200 reduced after 10 days to 150 mg/kg product reduced bodyweights particularly in the males. Therefore read across has been used to establish a NOAEL for systemic toxicity. The read across source for this end point is from 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol which is structurally similar to the target organism although is an amine ethoxylate and not an amine ethoxylate N-oxide. The QSAR models are not able to predict the properties of the N-oxide so this cannot be used to support the read across. However both the 28 day and 90 day studies for 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol had the same 150mg/kg top dose as the target and both showed a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bodyweight per day. Also to support this there is an old 90 day study for Ethanol, 2.2’-iminobis,-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, CAS No 61791-44-4, which is the same tallow amine ethoxylate as the target but again not the N-oxide, however it showed a very similar NOAEL of 35 mg/kg body weight per day. Toxicity was related to reduce bodyweight gain in males at the top dose and foamy macrophages seen in mesenteric lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the in the jejunum and duodenum. The similarity in their structure with similar carbon chain lengths (derived from natural fatty acids), their top dose levels being the same and the effects seen in the top dose of bodyweight loss, support the use of the 30 mg/kg bodyweight /day oral NOAEL from the 90 day study on 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol as the basis for the derivations of DNELs for Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
27th December 2012 (dosing) to 27th March 2013 (post-mortem)
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted in compliance with agreed protocols, with no/minor deviations from test guidelines and/or minor methodological deficiencues, which do not affect the quality of relevant results.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.26 (Sub-Chronic Oral Toxicity Test: Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.3100 (90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
A sufficient number of male and female Wistar Han™:RccHan™:WIST strain rats were obtained from Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Oxon, UK. On receipt the animals were examined for signs of ill-health or injury. The animals were acclimatised for eight days during which time their health status was assessed. A total of eighty animals (forty males and forty females) were accepted into the study. At the start of treatment the males weighed 155 to 194g (See Deviations from Study Plan), the females weighed 138 to 160g, and were approximately six to eight weeks old.
The animals were housed in groups of three or four by sex in solid floor polypropylene cages with stainless steel mesh lids and softwood flake bedding (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK). The animals were allowed free access to food and water. A pelleted diet (Rodent 2014C Teklad Global Certified Diet, Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Oxon, UK.) was used. Certificates of analysis of the batches of diet used are given in Addendum 1. Mains drinking water was supplied from polycarbonate bottles attached to the cage. The diet and drinking water were considered not to contain any contaminant at a level that might have affected the purpose or integrity of the study. Environmental enrichment was provided in the form of wooden chew blocks and cardboard fun tunnels (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK).

The animals were housed in a single air-conditioned room within the Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK Barrier Maintained Rodent Facility. The rate of air exchange was at least fifteen air changes per hour and the low intensity fluorescent lighting was controlled to give twelve hours continuous light and twelve hours darkness. Environmental conditions were continuously monitored by a computerised system, and print-outs of hourly temperatures and humidities are included in the study records. The Study Plan target ranges for temperature and relative humidity were 22 ± 3 °C and 50 ± 20% respectively; there were no deviations from the target ranges.

The animals were randomly allocated to treatment groups using a stratified body weight randomisation procedure and the group mean body weights were then determined to ensure similarity between the treatment groups. The cage distribution within the holding rack was also randomised. The animals were uniquely identified within the study by an ear punching system routinely used in these laboratories.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on oral exposure:
As Arachis Oil was successfully used on a previous twenty-eight day toxicity study, for this study the test item was prepared at the appropriate concentrations as a solution in Arachis oil BP. The stability and homogeneity of the test item formulations were previously determined by Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK, Analytical Services (Harlan Laboratories Project Number 0142-0418) at concentrations of 3.75 and 250 mg/kg bw/day. Results from the previous study show the formulations to be stable for at least twenty one days at 4 °C. An additional investigation of the stability of the Test Item at a concentration of 1.25 mg/ml for one day was performed as part of this study. Bulk formulations for the high and intermediate dosage groups were generally prepared in batches of approximately two weeks duration and divided into daily aliquots. These formulations were stored at approximately 4 °C in the dark prior to use. The low dose formulations were made on a daily basis using the formulation prepared for the high dosage group.

Represenative samples of test item formulations were taken and analysed for concentration of 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)bisethanol CAS No 25307-17-9 at Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK, Analytical Services. The method used for analysis of formulations and the results obtained are given in Appendix 17. The results indicate that the prepared formulations were within 86-115% of the nominal concentration confirming the accuracy of the formulation procedure and were considered acceptable for the study.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of 2,2 (octadec-9 enylimino) bisthanol CAS No: 25307-17-9 in the test item formulations was determined by gas chromatography (GC) using an external standard technique.

Samples
The test item formulations were extracted with methanol to give a final, theoretical test item concentration of approximately 0.1 mg/ml.

Standards
Standard solutions of test item were prepared in methanol at a nominal concentration of 0.1 mg/ml.

Procedure
The standard and sample solutions were analysed by GC using the following conditions:

GC system : Agilent Technologies 5890, incorporating autosampler and workstation
Column : DB-1 (15 m x 0.53 mm id x 1.5 µm film)
Oven temperature program :initial 200 ºC for 0 mins, rate 10 ºC/min, final 300 ºC for 12 mins
Injection temperature :300 ºC
Flame ionisation detector temperature :300 ºC
Injection volume: : 1 µl
Retention time : ~ 5.5 mins

Homogeneity Determinations
The 1.25 mg/ml test item formulations were assessed by visual inspection. The homogeneity for the other dose levels was performed under Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Project Number 0142-0418.

Stability Determinations
The 1.25 mg/ml test item formulations were sampled and analysed initially and then after storage at approximately +4ºC in the dark for 1 days. The stability for the other dose levels was performed under Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Project Number 0142-0418.

Verification of Test Item Formulation Concentrations
The test item formulations were sampled and analysed within 1 day of preparation.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 days
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
5 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
150 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 maes
10 females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Dosages were selected, in collaboration with the sponsor based on available toxicity data including a twenty-eight day toxicity study performed at these laboratories (Harlan Laboratories Project Number 0142-0419). In the twenty-eight day toxicity study, adverse toxicity was observed at 250 mg/kg bw/day that precluded this dosage from use on this study. However the dosage of 250 mg/kg bw/day was subsequently lowered to 150 mg/kg bw/day and this dosage was well tolerated, although histopathological changes were apparent for the stomach and small intestines. It was anticipated that the effects observed for the stomach and small intestines would not increase significantly with the longer duration of treatment utilised in this 90 day study therefore 150 mg/kg bw/day was chosen for the high dosage in this study. Lower dosages of 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day were also selected.

The test item was administered daily, for ninety consecutive days, by gavage using a stainless steel cannula attached to a disposable plastic syringe. Control animals were treated in an identical manner with 4 ml/kg of Arachis oil BP.
The volume of test and control item administered to each animal was based on the most recent body weight and was adjusted at weekly intervals.
Positive control:
None
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Clinical Observations
All animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health or behavioural change immediately before dosing, up to thirty minutes post dosing and one and five hours after dosing during the working week. Animals were observed immediately before and after dosing and one hour after dosing at weekends and public holidays. All observations were recorded.

Functional Observations
Prior to the start of treatment and at weekly intervals thereafter, all animals were observed for signs of functional/behavioural toxicity. During Week 12 functional performances tests were also performed on all animals together with an assessment of sensory reactivity to different stimuli.

Behavioural Assessments
Detailed individual clinical observations were performed for each animal using a purpose built arena. The following parameters were observed:
Gait, Hyper/Hypothermia, Tremors, Skin colour, Twitches, Respiration, Convulsions, Palpebral closure, Bizarre/Abnormal/Stereotypic behaviour, Urination, Salivation, Defecation, Pilo-erection, Transfer arousal, Exophthalmia, Tail elevation, Lachrymation

This test was developed from the methods used by Irwin (1968) and Moser et al (1988). The scoring system used is outlined in The Key to Scoring System and Explanation for Behavioural Assessments and Sensory Reactivity Tests.

Functional Performance Tests
Motor Activity.
Twenty purpose built 44 infra-red beam automated activity monitors were used to assess motor activity. Animals of one sex were tested at each occasion and were randomly allocated to the activity monitors. The tests were performed at approximately the same time each occasion (at least two hours after dosing), under similar laboratory conditions. The evaluation period was one hour for each animal. The time in seconds each animal was active and mobile was recorded for the overall one hour period and also during the final 20 % of the period (considered to be the asymptotic period, Reiter and Macphail 1979).

Forelimb/Hindlimb Grip Strength.
An automated grip strength meter was used. Each animal was allowed to grip the proximal metal bar of the meter with its forepaws. The animal was pulled by the base of the tail until its grip was broken. The animal was drawn along the trough of the meter by the tail until its hind paws gripped the distal metal bar. A record of the force required to break the grip for each animal was made. Three consecutive trials were performed for each animal. The assessment was developed from the method employed by Meyer et al (1979).

Sensory Reactivity
Each animal was individually assessed for sensory reactivity to auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli. This assessment was developed from the methods employed by Irwin (1968) and Moser et al (1988). The scoring system used is outlined in The Key to Scoring System and Explanation for Behavioural Assessments and Sensory Reactivity Tests.

The following parameters were observed: Grasp response, Touch escape, Vocalisation, Pupil reflex, Toe pinch, Blink reflex, Tail pinch, Startle reflex,
Finger approach

Body Weight
Individual body weights were recorded on Day 1 and at weekly intervals thereafter. Body weights were also recorded at terminal kill.

Food Consumption
Food consumption was recorded for each cage group at weekly intervals throughout the study.

Water Consumption
Water intake was observed daily, for each cage group, by visual inspection of the water bottles for any overt changes.

Ophthalmoscopic Examination
The eyes of all control and high dose animals were examined pre-treatment and before termination of treatment (during Week 12). Examinations included observation of the anterior structures of the eye, pupillary and corneal blink reflex. Following pupil dilation with 0.5 % Tropicamide solution (Mydriacyl® 0.5 %, Alcon Laboratories (UK) Ltd., Pentagon Park, Boundary Way, Hemel Hampstead, Hertfordshire), detailed examination of the internal structure of the eye using a direct ophthalmoscope was performed.


Laboratory Investigations
Haematological and blood chemical investigations were performed on all animals from each test and control group at the end of the study (Day 90). Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein. Where necessary repeat samples were obtained by cardiac puncture prior to necropsy on Day 91. Animals were not fasted prior to sampling.

Haematology, Haemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocyte count (RBC), Haematocrit (Hct), Erythrocyte indices- mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Total leucocyte count (WBC), Differential leucocyte count - neutrophils (Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eos) and basophils (Bas), Platelet count (PLT), Prothrombin time (CT) was assessed by ‘Innovin’ and Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was assessed by ‘Actin FS’ using samples collected into sodium citrate solution (0.11 mol/l).


Blood Chemistry

The following parameters were measured on plasma from blood collected into tubes containing lithium heparin anti-coagulant:
Urea, Inorganic phosphorus (P), Glucose, Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), Total protein (Tot.Prot.), Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase (AP), Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio (by calculation), Creatinine (Creat), Sodium (Na+), Total cholesterol (Chol), Potassium (K+), Total bilirubin (Bili), Chloride (Cl-), Bile acids, Calcium (Ca++)
Sacrifice and pathology:
Pathology
On completion of the dosing period all animals were killed by intravenous overdose of sodium pentobarbitone followed by exsanguination.
All animals were subjected to a full external and internal examination, and any macroscopic abnormalities were recorded.

Organ Weights
The following organs, removed from animals that were killed at the end of the study, were dissected free from fat and weighed before fixation:
Adrenals, Ovaries, Brain, Spleen, Epididymides, Testes, Heart, Thymus, Kidneys, Uterus, Liver

Histopathology
Samples of the following tissues were removed from all animals and preserved in buffered 10 % formalin, except where stated:

Adrenals, Ovaries, Aorta (thoracic), Pancreas, Bone & bone marrow (femur including stifle joint), Pituitary, Bone & bone marrow (sternum), Prostate,
Brain (including cerebrum, cerebellum and pons), Rectum, Caecum, Salivary glands (submaxillary), Colon , Sciatic nerve, Duodenum, Seminal vesicles, Epididymides, Skin (hind limb), Eyes*, Spinal cord (cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), Gross lesions, Heart, Spleen, Ileum (including Peyer’s patches), Stomach, Jejunum, Testes, Kidneys, Thymus, Liver, Thyroid/Parathyroid, Lungs (with bronchi), Tongue, Lymph nodes (mandibular and mesenteric), Trachea, Mammary glands, Urinary bladder, Muscle (skeletal), Uterus, Oesophagus

All tissues from control and 150 mg/kg bw/day dose group animals were prepared as paraffin blocks, sectioned at a nominal thickness of 5 µm and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin for subsequent microscopic examination.

Since there were indications of treatment-related changes, examination was subsequently extended to include similarly prepared sections of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes from animals in the low and intermediate groups.

Statistics:
Data were processed to give summary incidence or group mean and standard deviation values where appropriate. All data were summarised in tabular form.
Where considered appropriate, quantitative data was subjected to statistical analysis to detect the significance of intergroup differences from control; statistical significance was achieved at a level of p<0.05. Statistical analysis was performed on the following parameters:
Grip Strength, Motor Activity, Body Weight Change, Haematology, Blood Chemistry, Urinalysis (Volume and Specific Gravity), Absolute Organ Weights, Body Weight-Relative Organ Weights.
Data were analysed using the decision tree from the ProvantisTM Tables and Statistics Module as detailed below:
Where appropriate, data transformations were performed using the most suitable method. The homogeneity of variance from mean values was analysed using Bartlett’s test. Intergroup variance were assessed using suitable ANOVA, or if required, ANCOVA with appropriate covarities. Any transformed data were analysed to find the lowest treatment level that showed a significant effect using the Williams Test for parametric data or the Shirley Test for non-parametric data. If no dose response was found but the data shows non-homogeneity of means, the data were analysed by a stepwise Dunnett’s (parametric) or Steel (non-parametric) test to determine significant difference from the control group. Where the data were unsuitable for these analyses, pair-wise tests was performed using the Student t-test (parametric) or the Mann-Whitney U test (non-parametric).
Probability values (p) are presented as follows:
p<0.01 **
p<0.05 *
p>0.05 (not significant)
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Mortality

There were no unscheduled deaths on the study.

Clinical observations

Neither the type, incidence nor distribution of clinical signs observed during the study indicated any adverse effect of treatment at dosages up to 150 mg/kg bw/day.

At 150 mg/kg bw/day all animals showed increased salivation post dosing during the study. Similar increased salivation post dosing was also observed at 30 mg/kg bw/day but the incidence and number of animals affected was much lower. At 5 mg/kg bw/day only one male showed increased post-dosing salivation during the study. Increased salivation is frequently observed when animals are dosed via the oral gavage route and this is generally considered to reflect distaste/irritancy of the test item formulation rather than any systemic effect of treatment.

Additionally at 150 mg/kg bw/day, two males and one female showed noisy respiration and one male also showed staining around the snout during the study. These findings are probably associated with the increased salivation observed at this dosage.

Functional observations

Behavioural Assessments

 Assessment of the animals in a standard arena did not reveal any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

Functional Performance Tests

Assessment of functional performance using grip strength and measurement of motor activity did not indicate any obvious effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments

Sensory reactivity to different stimuli (auditory, visual and proprioceptive) also appeared unaffected by treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

       

Body Weight

At 150 mg/kg bw/day body weight gain of males was lower than control throughout the treatment period, with differences frequency attaining statistical significance. By the end of the fourth week of treatment differences in absolute body weights attained statistical significance when compared with control and overall body weight gain of these males at the end of treatment was approximately 71% of their control counterparts. There was considered to be no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain of females at this dosage.

At 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day there was no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain for either sex.

           

Food Consumption

At 150 mg/kg bw/day food consumption of males tended to be lower than control throughout the treatment period. This finding was consistent with the lower body weight gains observed at this dosage and was considered to be related to treatment. For females at this dosage, food intake also tended to be lower than control throughout treatment; however on most occasions, these differences were unremarkable and overall these differences in food intake were considered to reflect normal biological variation rather than any effect of treatment.

At 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day was no obvious effect of treatment on food consumption for either sex.

    

Food Conversion Efficiency

There were no clear effects of treatment on food conversion efficiency for either sex at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day food efficiency was often lower than control, but these differences were generally not marked and did not indicate any consistent adverse effect of treatment.

Water Consumption

Visual assessment of water intake did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

   

Opthalmoscopic Examination

Ophthalmic examination during the last week of treatment did not indicate any effect of treatment for either sex at 150 mg/kg bw/day.

              

Oestrus Cycle Assessments

Assessment of female oestrus cycles did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

    

       

Laboratory Investigations

Haematology


Males

There was no clear effect of treatment on haematology parameters at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day lower mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell volume attained statistical significance when compared with control. The majority of values for these treated animals were within the historical control range for these parameters and, in the absence of any histopathological correlates, these differences were considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.   

For males at 30 mg/kg bw/day, lower platelet count attained statistical significance when compared with control but all values for treated animals were within the historical control range. In the absence of any similar effect at 150 mg/kg bw/day, this finding was considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.  

Females

At all dosages, lower mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration attained statistical significance when compared with control. For mean cell haemoglobin concentration, the majority of individual values for all dosage groups were outside the historical control. For mean cell haemoglobin, four of the ten individual values at 150 mg/kg bw/day were outside the historical control range; however, at lower dosages only one value at 5 mg/kg bw/day was below this historical range. 

At 150 mg/kg bw/day these findings were accompanied by lower mean haemoglobin and mean cell volume, with differences from control again attaining statistical significance compared with control. While the majority of values for mean haemoglobin at 150 mg/kg bw/day exceeded the historical control range, all values for mean cell volume were within this historical range.

Additionally at 150 mg/kg bw/day the number of neutrophils was statistically significantly higher than control, with the majority of individual values exceeding the historical control range. There was no accompanying statistically significant difference from control observed for total leucocyte count.

     

Blood Chemistry

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day, lower levels of total protein, accompanied by lower blood albumin levels and an increase for albumin/globulin ratio, all attained statistical significance compared with control. The majority of individual values for total protein were outside the historical control range, but only a few values for albumin and albumin/globulin ratio were outside this historical range.     

Higher levels of bile acids for males at 150 mg/kg bw/day also attained statistical significance compared with control. All individual values for treated animals exceeded the historical control range but so did the majority of individual control values.

Additionally males at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed a decrease in creatinine levels, although only individual values for three animals were outside the historical control range. Lower levels of blood urea and total cholesterol also attained statistical significance compared to control but all individual values were within the historical control range.   

For males at 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day statistically significant differences in blood chemistry parameters from control were restricted to lower creatinine levels and all individual values for treated animals were within the historical control range.

There were no statistically significant differences in blood chemistry parameters from control for females at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Pathology

Necropsy

There were no findings observed at macroscopic necropsy examination that indicated any adverse effect of treatment.

Two control females and one female at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed reddened lungs, while another female at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed pale foci on the lungs at necropsy. In the absence of any treatment related effects being detected for the lungs during microscopic examination, these findings are considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.

Organ Weights

At 150 mg/kg bw/day, absolute liver weights were lower than control for males but higher than control for females, with differences from control for both sexes attaining statistical significance. Body weight-relative values probably represent a more accurate indicator of treatment effect for this organ and for both sexes mean values were increased compared with control; differences attained statistical significance and the majority of individual body weight relative values exceeding the historical control range. 

For females at 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control, with the majority of individual body weight relative values for treated animal exceeding the historical control range. 

Additionally for females at 150 mg/kg bw/day higher absolute and body weight-relative uterus weights attained statistical significance when compared to control. However, these mean values at 150 mg/kg bw/day were influenced by one female with a particularly high uterus weight; no statistically significant difference from control was apparent when this animal was excluded. In the absence of any supporting histopathological change at this dosage this finding was considered incidental and of no toxicological significance.       

For males at 30 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control. However, there were no statistically significant differences in kidney weights for males at 150 mg/kg bw/day and the majority of individual values at 30 mg/kg bw/day were within the historical control range. In the absence of any evidence of histopathological kidney change at 150 mg/kg bw/day, the increases in kidney weights were considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.

There were no statistically significant differences in organ weights for females at 30 mg/kg bw/day or either sex at 5 mg/kg bw/day.

Histopathology

Treatment at 150 mg/kg bw/day produced minimal or mild diffuse epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach in most animals; minimal or mild focal erosion of the forestomach, minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal oedema and minimal focal dyskeratosis were also present in the forestomach of a few animals. In addition, minimal to marked foamy macrophages were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine (principally the jejunum but also in the duodenum and ileum) and also in the sinuses of the mesenteric lymph node for both sexes at this dosage.

At 30 mg/kg bw/day treatment-related changes were confined to the forestomach in which there were incidences of minimal focal epithelial hyperplasia, minimal focal erosion, submucosal oedema and minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration.

No treatment-related changes were observed in the small intestine or mesenteric lymph node.

No treatment-related changes were observed for either sex at 5 mg/kg bw/day.

All of the other histopathological findings encountered were considered to have arisen spontaneously or atpost mortem.

Conclusions:
At 150 mg/kg bw/day, the extent of microscopic changes to the fore stomach and gastro-intestinal tract apparent for both sexes was considered to exclude this dosage from being a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). At 30 mg/kg bw/day, microscopic changes were restricted to the fore stomach and was considered to represent a local irritancy effect of the test item rather than systemic toxicity. As such, a dosage of 30 mg/kg bw/day may be considered the NOAEL for systemic toxicity.

A dosage of 5 mg/kg bw/day was considered to represent the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL).
Executive summary:

Introduction.The study was designed to investigate the systemic toxicity of the test item and is compatible with the following regulatory guidelines:

i)         The OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 408 "Subchronic Oral Toxicity - Rodent: 90 Day Study” (Adopted 21 September 1998).

ii)        The EU Annex B Method B26 - “Subchronic Oral Toxicity Test - Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents” - updated 21 August 2001.

iii)       The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Health Effects Test Guidelines, OPPTS 870.3100 - 90 Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents.

This study was also designed to be compatible with Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008, laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

Methods.The test item was administered continuously by gavage to three groups, each of ten male and ten female Wistar Han™: RccHan™: WIST strain rats, for ninety consecutive days, at dose levels of 5, 30 and 150 mg/kg bw/day. A control group of ten males and ten females was dosed with vehicle alone (Arachis oil BP) over the same treatment period.

Clinical signs, functional observations, body weight change, dietary intake and water consumption were monitored during the study. Haematology and blood chemistry were evaluated for all animals at the end of the study. Ophthalmoscopic examination was also performed on control group and high dose animals.

All animals were subjected to gross necropsy examination and histopathological evaluation of selected tissues from high dose and control animals was performed. These examinations were extended for the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes to include animals from the low and intermediate dosage groups. 


Results.

Mortality.There were no unscheduled deaths on the study.

Clinical Observations.There were no clinical signs observed that were considered to be of any toxicological significance at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day during the study.

Behavioural Assessment.Behavioural assessments did not reveal any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. 

Functional Performance Tests.Functional performance tests did not indicate any effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments.Sensory reactivity assessments did not indicate any effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Body Weight.At 150 mg/kg bw/day body weight gain of males was lower than control throughout the treatment period with overall body weight gain being approximately 71% of control by the end of treatment.

Food Consumption.At 150 mg/kg bw/day food consumption of males was generally lower than control throughout the treatment period.

Food Conversion Efficiency.Food conversion efficiency was considered to have been unaffected by treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Water Consumption.Visual assessment of water intake did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Ophthalmoscopy.Ophthalmic examination did not indicate any effect of treatment at 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Haematology.For females at 150 mg/kg bw/day, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell volume were statistically significantly lower than control and the number of neutrophils was statistically significantly higher than control.

Blood Chemistry.For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day, lower levels of total protein, accompanied by lower blood albumin levels and an increase for albumin/globulin ratio, all attained statistical significance compared with control. Higher levels of bile acids and lower levels of creatinine also attained statistical significance compared with control.

Necropsy.There were no macroscopic findings observed at necropsy examination that were considered to be associated with treatment.

Organ Weights.At 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute liver weight for males and lower absolute liver weight for females attained statistical significance compared to control. Body weight-relative values were statistically significantly higher than control for both sexes. 

At 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative female kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control.

Histopathology.At 150 mg/kg bw/day minimal or mild diffuse epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach were observed in most animals with minimal or mild focal erosion of the forestomach, minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal oedema and minimal focal dyskeratosis being present in the forestomach for a few animals. In addition, minimal to marked foamy macrophages were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine (principally the jejunum but also in the duodenum and ileum) and also in the sinuses of the mesenteric lymph node for both sexes.

At 30 mg/kg bw/day treatment-related changes were restricted to incidences of minimal focal epithelial hyperplasia, minimal focal erosion, submucosal oedema and minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration of the forestomach. No treatment-related changes were observed in the small intestine or mesenteric lymph node.

Conclusion.At 150 mg/kg bw/day, the extent of microscopic changes to the fore stomach and gastro-intestinal tract apparent for both sexes was considered to exclude this dosage from being a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). At 30 mg/kg bw/day, microscopic changes were restricted to the fore stomach and were considered to represent a local irritancy effect of the test item rather than systemic toxicity. As such, a dosage of 30 mg/kg bw/day may be considered the NOAEL for systemic toxicity.

A dosage of 5 mg/kg bw/day was considered to represent the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL).

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Between 22 September 2009 and 07 December 2009.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted in compliance with agreed protocols, with no or minor deviations from standard test guidelines and/or minor methodological deficiencies, which do not affect the quality of the relevant results.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
High dose reduced from 250 mg/kg/day from Day 9 (males) or Day 8 (females) to 150 mg/kg/day
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source:
Wistar Han™:HsdRccHan™:WIST strain rats from Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Blackthorn, Bicester, Oxon

- Age at study initiation:
six to eight weeks old

- Weight at study initiation:
195 to 230g (male), 149 to 181g (female)

- Fasting period before study:
Not applicable

- Housing:
The animals were housed in groups of five in polpropylene grid floor cages suspended over trays lined with absorbent paper.

- Diet:
A pelleted diet (Rodent 2014C Teklad Global Certified Diet, Harlan Laboratories U.K., Oxon, UK) was used (ad libitum).

- Water (e.g. ad libitum):
ad libitum mains water was supplied from polycarbonate bottles attached to the cage. The diet and drinking water was considered not to have any level of contaminant.

- Acclimation period:
Sevenr 7 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

- Temperature:
: (°C): 21 ± 2

- Humidity (%):
: 55 ± 15

- Air changes (per hr):
: At least fifteen air changes per hour

- Photoperiod (hr dark / hrs light):
: 12 hours continuous light and 12 hours darkness

IN-LIFE DATES:
From: Day1 To:Day 28
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on oral exposure:
Method of administration:
Gavage
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
For the purpose of this study the test material was prepared at the appropriate concentrations
as a solution in Arachis oil BP


DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency):
Not applicable

- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food):
Not applicable.

- Storage temperature of food:
Not applicable.


VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle(if other than water): Most suitable

- Concentration in vehicle:
7.5, 25 and 62.5/37.5 mg/ml.

- Amount of vehicle (if gavage):
4 ml/kg bodyweight

- Lot/batch no. (if required):
Unknown

- Purity:
Unknown
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of test material formulations was determined by gas chromatography. The test material formulations were sampled and analysis showed stability for at least twenty-one days. The analytical method has been satisfactorily validated in terms of linearity, specificity and accuracy for the purposes of the study. Dose formulations were prepared twice during the treatment period and stored at approximately 4ºC in the dark under nitrogen.

See Attached Appendix 16 - Chemical Analysis of Test Material Formulations, Methods and Results
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Oral administration of the test substance to all rats for a period of twenty-eight consecutive days followed in selected control and high dose rats by a fourteen day treatment-free period.
Frequency of treatment:
Dosing regime: 7 days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
Dose levels of 30, 100 and 250/150 mg/kg/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Male and Female: 10 animals per sex at 0 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 5 animals per sex at 30 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 5 animals per sex at 100 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 10 animals per sex at 250/150 mg/kg/day
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
Based Preliminary Seven Day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Range-Finder in the Rat

- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random):
Random

- Rationale for selecting satellite groups:
To determine potential regression of any detected systemic responses elicited by administration of the test material

- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups:
Fourteen days

- Section schedule rationale (if not random):
Random
Positive control:
Not applicable
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:

CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

- Time schedule: All animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health or behavioural change immediately before dosing, up to thirty minutes post dosing and one and five hours after dosing during the working week. Animals were observed immediately before and after dosing and one hour after dosing at weekends. All observations were recorded.

- Cage side observations checked in table [1] please see attached tables

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes see above
- Time schedule: As above

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations:
Individual bodyweights were recorded on Day 1 (prior to start of treatment) and on Days 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36. Terminal bodyweights were also recorded at the Day 29 or Day 43 necropsies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): Not applicable

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Weekly food efficiency (bodyweight gain/food intake) was calculated.

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No
- Time schedule for examinations:
Water intake was measured gravimetric throughout te treatment period (Day 1 to Day 28)

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data:
Not applicable
- Time schedule for examinations:
Not applicable
- Dose groups that were examined:
Not applicable


HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
At the end of the treatment period (Day 28) and at the end of the treatment-free recovery period (Day 42).
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No
Not applicable
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals:
Five males and five females
- Parameters checked in table [11] please see attached Tables.
Routine haematological parameters were examined.


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
At the end of the treatment period (Day 28) and at the end of the treatment-free recovery period (Day 42).
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No
Not applicable
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals:
Five males and five females
- Parameters checked in table [12] please see attached Tables


URINALYSIS: No
- Time schedule for collection of urine: Not applicable
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Not applicable
- Animals fasted: Not applicable
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes please see attached Table 14

All animals were subjected to a full external and internal macroscopic examination and any abnormalities were recorded.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes please see attached Table 15

All control and high dose animals were subjected to a full histological examination and low and intermediate group animals were routinely subjected to examination of liver and spleen.

In addition: Since there were indications of treatment-related liver, small intestine, stomach and mesenteric lymph nodes changes, examination was subsequently extended to include similarly prepared sections of the liver, small intestine, stomach and mesenteric lymph nodes from all animals in the other treatment groups.

Other examinations:
In addition, sections of testes and epididymides from all Control and high dose males were stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and examined.
Statistics:
All data was summarised in tabular form. Where appropriate, quantitative data were analysed by the Provantis™ Tables and Statistics Module. For each variable, the most suitable transformation of the data was found, the use of possible covariates checked and the homogeneity of means assessed using ANOVA or ANCOVA and Bartlett’s test. The transformed data were analysed to find the lowest treatment level that showed a significant effect, using the Williams Test for parametric data or the Shirley Test for non-parametric data.
If no dose response was found, but the data showed non-homogeneity of means, the data were analysed by a stepwise Dunnett (parametric) or Steel (non-parametric) test to determine significant differences from the control group. Finally, if required, pair-wise tests were performed using the Student t-test (parametric) or the Mann-Whitney U test (non-parametric).
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
effects observed, treatment-related
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
Twenty-Eight Day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Toxicity Study in the Rat

Results

Mortality:

One female treated at the high dose level was found dead on Day 7. There were no further unscheduled deaths.

Clinical Observations:

Episodes of increased salivation, noisy respiration and hunched posture were evident in high dose animals from the first week of treatment. Red/brown fur staining (males) and generalised fur loss (females) was also evident at the high dose level. Animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed incidents of increased salivation from Day 10 onwards. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 30 mg/kg/day.

Behavioural Assessment:

There were no treatment-related changes in the behavioural parameters measured.

Functional Performance Tests:

There were no toxicologically significant changes in functional performance.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments:

There were no treatment-related changes in sensory reactivity.

Bodyweight:

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the first week of treatment. Males from this treatment group also showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the final week of treatment. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Food Consumption:

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in food consumption and food efficiency during Week 1. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Water Consumption:

No treatment-related changes in water intake were detected.

Haematology:

There were no treatment related effects detected in the haematological parameters measured.

Blood Chemistry:

There were no toxicologically significant effects detected in the blood chemical parameters measured.

Organ Weights:

Females treated at the high dose level showed an increase in liver weight both absolute and relative to terminal bodyweight. No such effects were detected in males treated at the high dose level or in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Necropsy:

There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected.

Stage of Oestrus:

There were no treatment-related effects detected in the stages of oestrus recorded.

Histopathology:

The following microscopic treatment-related changes were observed:

Liver: Centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement was seen in relation to treatment for females only treated at the high dose level but not at any other doselevel. The condition was observed to have regressed among recovery high dose animals following an additional fourteen days without treatment.
Hepatocyte enlargement is commonly observed in the rodent liver following the administration of xenobiotics and, in the absence of associated inflammatory or degenerative changes, is generally considered to be adaptive in nature.

Small Intestine: Vacuolation of lamina propria cells was observed as an effect of treatment in the jejunum and ileum, and occasionally in the duodenum, of animals of either sex treated at the high dose level. Two males treated with 100 mg/kg/day also demonstrated vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the jejunum which was considered to be an effect of treatment, but there were no such effects at the 30 mg/kg/day dose level.
The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of two female rats which demonstrated minimal residual vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the ileum.

Stomach: Acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, subepithelial inflammatory cell infiltrates, subepithelial oedema and epithelial ulceration/erosion were seen in the forestomach among animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day were similarly affected and an effect of treatment at this dose level cannot be excluded. All conditions were observed to have regressed completely among recovery high dose animals of either sex following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

Mesenteric Lymph Node: Foamy vacuolation of histiocytes was seen as a consequence of treatment in animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One female treated with 30 mg/kg/day was similarly affected but vacuolation of histiocytes is encountered occasionally as a spontaneous change and an effect of treatment at this dose level is unconvincing. The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of three male rats and one female rat for which there was minimal residual vacuolation of histiocytes.


Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
systemic toxicity
Effect level:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Critical effects observed:
not specified

See Attatched Tables, Figures, Appendices and Addenda

Fourteen day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Range-Finding Toxicity Study - Results.

 

Mortality.

One female treated with 500 mg/kg/day was found dead on Day 7. The remaining animals from this treatment group were terminated the same day. There were no further unscheduled deaths during the study.

 

Clinical Observations.

Males treated with 500 mg/kg/day showed incidences of tiptoe gait, red/brown stained snout, increased salivation, ptosis, pilo erection, lethargy, hunched posture, dehydration, diarrhoea or pallor of the extremities prior to termination. Females from this treatment group also showed red/brown stained snout and ano-genital region and increased salivation.

 

Animals of either sex treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed episodes of increased salivation between Days 8 and 14.

 

No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Bodyweight.

Prior to termination, all surviving animals treated with 500 mg/kg/day had lost bodyweight. Males treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in bodyweight gain throughout the treatment period. Females from this treatment group showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 1 and 3 only. 

 

Males treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 3 and 5 whilst females from this treatment group showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 5 and 8. Recovery in these animals was evident thereafter.

 

No such effects were detected in females treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Food Consumption.

Prior to termination, all animals treated with 500 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in food consumption. Animals of either sex treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed a slight reduction in food consumption throughout the treatment period.

 

No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Water Consumption.

Males treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed an increase in water consumption throughout the treatment period. No such effects were detected in females treated with 250 mg/kg/day or animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Necropsy.

At 500 mg/kg/day macroscopic observations included gaseous distension in the intestines, dark liver, dark pancreas, distended stomach, sloughing of the stomach and a raised limiting ridge. The female that was found dead on Day 7 from this treatment group had fluid filled intestines and red lungs. One male and one female treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed sloughing on the non-glandular region of the stomach.

 

Conclusion.

Oral administration of the test material Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to fourteen consecutive days at dose levels of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day resulted in treatment related effects in animals of either sex in all dose groups. 

Conclusions:
The oral administration of Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to twenty eight consecutive days at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day (reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females)) resulted in treatment related changes in animals of either sex from all treatment groups. A No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) has therefore not been established.
The gastric changes detected in one male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day may be considered to be adverse, however because a squamous-lined counterpart to the rodent forestomach is not present in human stomachs, these effects in this study, are not considered to be indicative of a hazard to human health and, for the purposes of hazard evaluation, the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL), should be regarded as 30 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

Introduction.

The study was designed to investigate the systemic toxicity of the test material. It complies the requirements for notification of a new chemical substance in the EC and follows the test method described in Commission Directive 96/54/EC (Method B7) and the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 407 "Repeated Dose 28 Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents" (adopted 03 October 2008).

This study was also designed to comply with Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008, laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

 

Methods.

The test material was administered by gavage to three groups, each of five male and five female Wistar Han™:HsdRccHan™:WIST strain rats, for up to twenty-eight consecutive days, at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. Due to significant actual bodyweight losses detected in high dose level males on Day 8 the high dose level was reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females). A control group of five males and five females was dosed with vehicle alone (Arachis oil BP). Two recovery groups, each of five males and five females, were treated with the high dose (250/150 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle alone for twenty-eight consecutive days and then maintained without treatment for a further fourteen days.

 

Clinical signs, functional observations, bodyweight development, dietary intake and waterconsumption were monitored during the study. Haematology and blood chemistry were evaluated for all animals at the end of the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy examination and histopathological evaluation of selected tissues was performed

 

Results.

 

Mortality.One female treated at the high dose level was found dead on Day 7. There were no further unscheduled deaths.

 

Clinical Observations.

Episodes of increased salivation, noisy respiration and hunched posture were evident in high dose animals from the first week of treatment. Red/brown fur staining (males) and generalised fur loss (females) was also evident at the high dose level. Animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed incidents of increased salivation from Day 10 onwards. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Behavioural Assessment.

There were no treatment-related changes in the behavioural parameters measured.

 

Functional Performance Tests.

There were no toxicologically significant changes in functional performance.

 

Sensory Reactivity Assessments.

There were no treatment-related changes in sensory reactivity.

 

Bodyweight.

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the first week of treatment. Males from this treatment group also showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the final week of treatment. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Food Consumption.

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in food consumption and food efficiency during Week 1. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Water Consumption.

No treatment-related changes in water intake were detected.

 

Haematology.

There were no treatment related effects detected in the haematological parameters measured.

 

Blood Chemistry.

There were no toxicologically significant effects detected in the blood chemical parameters measured.

 

Organ Weights.

Females treated at the high dose level showed an increase in liver weight both absolute and relative to terminal bodyweight. No such effects were detected in males treated at the high dose level or in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Necropsy.

There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected.

 

Stage of Oestrus.

There were no treatment-related effects detected in the stages of oestrus recorded.

 

Histopathology.

The following microscopic treatment-related changes were observed:

 

Liver:

Centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement was seen in relation to treatment for females only treated at the high dose level but not at any other dose level.

The condition was observed to have regressed among recovery high dose animals following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

Hepatocyte enlargement is commonly observed in the rodent liver following the administration of xenobiotics and, in the absence of associated inflammatory or degenerative changes, is generally considered to be adaptive in nature.

 

Small Intestines:

Vacuolation of lamina propria cells was observed as an effect of treatment in the jejunum and ileum, and occasionally in the duodenum, of animals of either sex treated at the high dose level. Two males treated with 100 mg/kg/day also demonstrated vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the jejunum which was considered to be an effect of treatment, but there were no such effects at the 30 mg/kg/day dose level.

The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of two female rats which demonstrated minimal residual vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the ileum. 

 

Stomach:

Acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, subepithelial inflammatory cell infiltrates, subepithelial oedema and epithelial ulceration/erosion were seen in the forestomach among animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day were similarly affected and an effect of treatment at this dose level cannot be excluded.

All conditions were observed to have regressed completely among recovery high dose animals of either sex following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

 

Mesenteric Lymph Node:

Foamy vacuolation of histiocytes was seen as a consequence of treatment in animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One female treated with 30 mg/kg/day was similarly affected but vacuolation of histiocytes is encountered occasionally as a spontaneous change and an effect of treatment at this dose level is unconvincing.

The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of three male rats and one female rat for which there was minimal residual vacuolation of histiocytes.

 

Conclusion.

The oral administration of Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to twenty eight consecutive days at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day (reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females)) resulted in treatment related changes in animals of either sex from all treatment groups. A No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) has therefore not been established. 

 

The gastric changes detected in one male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day may be considered to be adverse, however because a squamous-lined counterpart to the rodent forestomach is not present in human stomachs, these effects in this study, are not considered to be indicative of a hazard to human health and, for the purposes of hazard evaluation, the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL), should be regarded as 30 mg/kg/day.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1965
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: No data on batch no. and composition. Reporting is limited. The study was performed pre-GLP. No guideline was available.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Haematology parameters were limited. No clinical biochemistry was performed. No data reported on frequency and set up of
observations and clinical signs. Ophthalmological examinations and functional observations were not performed.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
pre-GLP
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: own colony maintained at Alderley Park, Cheshire, UK
- Weight at study initiation: 126-310 g (males), 88-232 g (females)
- Age at study initiation: no data
- Fasting period before study: no info
- Housing: 5/cage in Wilmslow-type mobile rat units (wire mesh cages on 3 sides and floor)
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad lib
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad lib
- Acclimation period: in house colony


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): no data
- Humidity (%): no data
- Air changes (per hr): no data
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): no data


IN-LIFE DATES: no data
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
maize oil
Details on oral exposure:

DIET PREPARATION:

All diets were pregered in tho central diet room of the Laboratories. The basic ration from which all diets were made was a
standard pulverised rat stock diet. The control diet contained powdered stock diet, 20 parts, malt extract, 18 parts, and maize oil , 2 parts, all by weight. Experimental diets were identical with the control except that the calculated weight of Ethomeen was
incoporated into the diet via the maize oil, in which it was dissolved by gentle heating at 40 degrees C. The ingredients were mixed mechanically and watar added to produce e dough. The mixture was extruded through a sausage-meat machine which moulded thediet into pieces of' 3 - 5 cm long and approximately 1 cm in diameter. These were then dried in a vacuum oven at a temperature of
not more than 40°C.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
No analyticak verification.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 days
Frequency of treatment:
ad libitum in the feed
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
170, 500, 1500, 4500 ppm
Basis:
nominal in diet
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25 sex/group, in the higest dose group 10 sex/group. In addition a further group of 14 rats, 7 males and 7 females, were fed diet
containing 4500 ppm Ethomeen T/12 end killed at intervals up to 6 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Tissues from these
animals were examined for sudanophilic material.
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: no info
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): at random
- Section schedule rationale (if not random): no info
Positive control:
Not used.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes, but frequency of observations not indicated.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No data

BODY WEIGHT: Yes / No / No data
Initially, the body weight of each rat was determined and recorded. Subsequently all animals were weighed weekly during the course of tho experiment.

FOOD CONSUMPTION:
Measured daily during 1 week in 0, 1500 and 4500 ppm groups.

FOOD EFFICIENCY: No data

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No data

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data

HAEMATOLOGY:
Haemoglobin concentrations, packed-cell volumes, white-cell counts and differential white-cell counts were measured pre-
experimentally and imediately prior to killing the animals at the end of the feeding period, These studies were done on individual
samples from 5 male and 5 female rats from each group except-that blood was examined from all animals fed diet containing the
highest level of Ethomeen T/12.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No data

URINALYSIS: No data

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No data

Sacrifice and pathology:
PATHOLOGY:
At the end of the 90-day test period all animals were killed with chloroform and an immediate full post-mortem examination made.
Absolute organ weights were recorded and organ/body weight ratios calculated from a random selection of animals in each group. The following organs wore included: liver, heart, lung, adrenals, kidneys, spleen. Tissues and organs of the remaining animals werefixed in Zenker's fluid except brains, which ware fixed in 10% formal saline, and examined microscopically. The following tissues
and organs were examined: liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, adrenals, gonads, thymus, thyroid, pancreas, stomach, duodenum,
jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon, salivary gland, mesenteric lymph nodes, spinal cord and brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla).
Other examinations:
No
Statistics:
Not used.
Clinical signs:
not specified
Mortality:
not specified
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
Mortality and Reactions:
No deaths occurred prematurely and males and females responded similarly. At the highest dose level hairloss was observed and
the animals were generally lethargic throughout the experiment. At the other dose levels no effects were noted.

Body weights:
At 4500 ppm, no body weight gain was observed and at 1500 ppm a decreased body weight gain was observed. At lower levels
no effects were observed.

Food consumption:
The palatability of the diet was affected by the addition of 4500 and 1500 ppm test compound.

Haematology:
No effects were noted.

Pathology:
Changes attributed to treatment were seen only in animals at a dietary level of 4500 ppm. These changes were confined to the
gastrointestinal tract. The stomach and bowel content of all rats at this dietary level was yellow and the mucooa of the small
intestine was thickened and yellow. The mean organ body-weight ratios were not different from controls. Abnormality was seen
only at a dietary level of 4,500 ppm and 1,500 pppm and was confined to the small intestine and regional mesenteric nodes. All
animals fed 4,500 ppm in the diet showed engorgement of the villi and lamina propria of the small intestine with swollen foamy
macrophages. Similar macrophages are occasionally seen to a lesser degree in Peyer's patches and in the regional lymph nodes.
Changes were most proounced In the jejunum and upper ileum but could be detected throughout the small intestine. The
macrophages were sudanophilic and were presumed to contain deposits of Ethomeen. The other components of the intestinal wall
appeared completely normal. A similar change was present to a lesser degree in 31 of 40 rats fed a dietary level of 1,500 ppm. No
changes were present ot a dietary level of 500 ppm or less of Ethomeen T/12.
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
500 ppm
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: At higher levels animals did not gain weight normally and showed pathological lesions confined to the small intestines and its regional lymph nodes. This dietary level of 500 ppm corresponds to ca. 35 mg/kg bw/day (see below)
Critical effects observed:
not specified

A NOEL of 500 ppm in the diet corresponds with:

ca. 33 mg/kg bw in males (taking into account a mean food intake of 20 g/day and a mean BW of 300 g throughout the study period)

ca. 35 mg/kg bw in females (taking into account a mean food intake of 15 g/day and a mean BW of 200 g throughout the study period)

Conclusions:
From this study a NOEL of 500 ppm can be derived. At higher levels animals did not gain weight normally and showed pathological
changes confined to the small intestines and its regional lymph nodes. This dietary level corresponds to ca. 35 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

The test substance Ethomeen T/12 was administered via the diet daily for 90 days to Wistar rats. One control group and four treated groups were tested, each consisting of 25 males and 25 females (except for the high dose group that had 10 animals per sex). These were exposed to 0, 170, 500, 1500 or 4500 ppm. A further group of 14 rats, 7 males and 7 females, was fed a diet containing 4500 ppm Ethomeen T/12 end killed at intervals up to 6 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Tissues from these animals were examined for sudanophilic material.

The following parameters were evaluated: clinical signs, body weight and food consumption, haematology, and macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues.

No deaths occurred prematurely and males and females responded similarly. At the highest dose level hairloss was observed and the animals were generally lethargic throughout the experiment. At the other dose levels no effects were noted. Body weights: At 4500 ppm, no body weight gain was observed and at 1500 ppm a decreased body weight gain was observed. At lower levels no effects were observed. Food consumption: The palatability of the diet was affected by the addition of 4500 and 1500 ppm test compound. Haematology: No effects were noted. Pathology: Changes attributed to treatment were seen only in animals at a dietary level of 4500 ppm. These changes were confined to the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach and bowel content of all rats at this dietary level was yellow and the mucooa of the small intestine was thickened and yellow. The mean organ body-weight ratios were not different from controls. Abnormality was seen only at a dietary level of 4,500 ppm and 1,500 pppm and was confined to the small intestine and regional mesenteric nodes. All animals fed 4,500 ppm in the diet showed engorgement of the villi and lamina propria of the small intestine with swollen foamy macrophages. Similar macrophages are occasionally seen to a lesser degree in Peyer's patches and in the regional lymph nodes. Changes were most proounced In the jejunum and upper ileum but could be detected throughout the small intestine. The macrophages were sudanophilic and were presumed to contain deposits of Ethomeen T/12. The other components of the intestinal wall appeared completely normal. A similar change was present to a lesser degree in 31 of 40 rats fed a dietary level of 1,500 ppm. No changes were present ot a dietary level of 500 ppm or less of Ethomeen T/12.

From this study a NOEL of 500 ppm can be derived. At higher levels animals did not gain weight normally and showed pathological changes confined to the small intestines and its regional lymph nodes. This dietary level corresponds to ca. 35 mg/kg bw/day.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
27th December 2012 (dosing) to 27th March 2013 (post-mortem)
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted in compliance with agreed protocols, with no/minor deviations from test guidelines and/or minor methodological deficiencues, which do not affect the quality of relevant results.
Justification for type of information:
The structural similarity for the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is that it has ca 80% C18 unsaturated, 6% C18 saturated and 9% C16 and ca 1.5% C14. This compares to tallow such as in the target Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides which typically has 35% C18 unsaturated, 26% C18 saturated, 35% C16 and 2.4% C14 and 1.3% C17. The higher degree of unsaturation in the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is expected to result in higher reactivity from the increased double bonds in the unsaturated C18 at 80% as opposed to 35% in the tallow. Therefore the systemic toxicity of the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is not expected to be an underestimate of the systemic toxicity of the target Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides.. Using the NOAEL of 30 mg/kg from the 90 day study on the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol will result in DNELs that will be conservative and provide adequate protection from the systemic toxicity of Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
A sufficient number of male and female Wistar Han™:RccHan™:WIST strain rats were obtained from Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Oxon, UK. On receipt the animals were examined for signs of ill-health or injury. The animals were acclimatised for eight days during which time their health status was assessed. A total of eighty animals (forty males and forty females) were accepted into the study. At the start of treatment the males weighed 155 to 194g (See Deviations from Study Plan), the females weighed 138 to 160g, and were approximately six to eight weeks old.
The animals were housed in groups of three or four by sex in solid floor polypropylene cages with stainless steel mesh lids and softwood flake bedding (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK). The animals were allowed free access to food and water. A pelleted diet (Rodent 2014C Teklad Global Certified Diet, Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Oxon, UK.) was used. Certificates of analysis of the batches of diet used are given in Addendum 1. Mains drinking water was supplied from polycarbonate bottles attached to the cage. The diet and drinking water were considered not to contain any contaminant at a level that might have affected the purpose or integrity of the study. Environmental enrichment was provided in the form of wooden chew blocks and cardboard fun tunnels (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK).

The animals were housed in a single air-conditioned room within the Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK Barrier Maintained Rodent Facility. The rate of air exchange was at least fifteen air changes per hour and the low intensity fluorescent lighting was controlled to give twelve hours continuous light and twelve hours darkness. Environmental conditions were continuously monitored by a computerised system, and print-outs of hourly temperatures and humidities are included in the study records. The Study Plan target ranges for temperature and relative humidity were 22 ± 3 °C and 50 ± 20% respectively; there were no deviations from the target ranges.

The animals were randomly allocated to treatment groups using a stratified body weight randomisation procedure and the group mean body weights were then determined to ensure similarity between the treatment groups. The cage distribution within the holding rack was also randomised. The animals were uniquely identified within the study by an ear punching system routinely used in these laboratories.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on oral exposure:
As Arachis Oil was successfully used on a previous twenty-eight day toxicity study, for this study the test item was prepared at the appropriate concentrations as a solution in Arachis oil BP. The stability and homogeneity of the test item formulations were previously determined by Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK, Analytical Services (Harlan Laboratories Project Number 0142-0418) at concentrations of 3.75 and 250 mg/kg bw/day. Results from the previous study show the formulations to be stable for at least twenty one days at 4 °C. An additional investigation of the stability of the Test Item at a concentration of 1.25 mg/ml for one day was performed as part of this study. Bulk formulations for the high and intermediate dosage groups were generally prepared in batches of approximately two weeks duration and divided into daily aliquots. These formulations were stored at approximately 4 °C in the dark prior to use. The low dose formulations were made on a daily basis using the formulation prepared for the high dosage group.

Represenative samples of test item formulations were taken and analysed for concentration of 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)bisethanol CAS No 25307-17-9 at Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Shardlow, UK, Analytical Services. The method used for analysis of formulations and the results obtained are given in Appendix 17. The results indicate that the prepared formulations were within 86-115% of the nominal concentration confirming the accuracy of the formulation procedure and were considered acceptable for the study.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of 2,2 (octadec-9 enylimino) bisthanol CAS No: 25307-17-9 in the test item formulations was determined by gas chromatography (GC) using an external standard technique.

Samples
The test item formulations were extracted with methanol to give a final, theoretical test item concentration of approximately 0.1 mg/ml.

Standards
Standard solutions of test item were prepared in methanol at a nominal concentration of 0.1 mg/ml.

Procedure
The standard and sample solutions were analysed by GC using the following conditions:

GC system : Agilent Technologies 5890, incorporating autosampler and workstation
Column : DB-1 (15 m x 0.53 mm id x 1.5 µm film)
Oven temperature program :initial 200 ºC for 0 mins, rate 10 ºC/min, final 300 ºC for 12 mins
Injection temperature :300 ºC
Flame ionisation detector temperature :300 ºC
Injection volume: : 1 µl
Retention time : ~ 5.5 mins

Homogeneity Determinations
The 1.25 mg/ml test item formulations were assessed by visual inspection. The homogeneity for the other dose levels was performed under Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Project Number 0142-0418.

Stability Determinations
The 1.25 mg/ml test item formulations were sampled and analysed initially and then after storage at approximately +4ºC in the dark for 1 days. The stability for the other dose levels was performed under Harlan Laboratories Ltd., Project Number 0142-0418.

Verification of Test Item Formulation Concentrations
The test item formulations were sampled and analysed within 1 day of preparation.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 days
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
5 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
30 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
150 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 maes
10 females
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Dosages were selected, in collaboration with the sponsor based on available toxicity data including a twenty-eight day toxicity study performed at these laboratories (Harlan Laboratories Project Number 0142-0419). In the twenty-eight day toxicity study, adverse toxicity was observed at 250 mg/kg bw/day that precluded this dosage from use on this study. However the dosage of 250 mg/kg bw/day was subsequently lowered to 150 mg/kg bw/day and this dosage was well tolerated, although histopathological changes were apparent for the stomach and small intestines. It was anticipated that the effects observed for the stomach and small intestines would not increase significantly with the longer duration of treatment utilised in this 90 day study therefore 150 mg/kg bw/day was chosen for the high dosage in this study. Lower dosages of 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day were also selected.

The test item was administered daily, for ninety consecutive days, by gavage using a stainless steel cannula attached to a disposable plastic syringe. Control animals were treated in an identical manner with 4 ml/kg of Arachis oil BP.
The volume of test and control item administered to each animal was based on the most recent body weight and was adjusted at weekly intervals.
Positive control:
None
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Clinical Observations
All animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health or behavioural change immediately before dosing, up to thirty minutes post dosing and one and five hours after dosing during the working week. Animals were observed immediately before and after dosing and one hour after dosing at weekends and public holidays. All observations were recorded.

Functional Observations
Prior to the start of treatment and at weekly intervals thereafter, all animals were observed for signs of functional/behavioural toxicity. During Week 12 functional performances tests were also performed on all animals together with an assessment of sensory reactivity to different stimuli.

Behavioural Assessments
Detailed individual clinical observations were performed for each animal using a purpose built arena. The following parameters were observed:
Gait, Hyper/Hypothermia, Tremors, Skin colour, Twitches, Respiration, Convulsions, Palpebral closure, Bizarre/Abnormal/Stereotypic behaviour, Urination, Salivation, Defecation, Pilo-erection, Transfer arousal, Exophthalmia, Tail elevation, Lachrymation

This test was developed from the methods used by Irwin (1968) and Moser et al (1988). The scoring system used is outlined in The Key to Scoring System and Explanation for Behavioural Assessments and Sensory Reactivity Tests.

Functional Performance Tests
Motor Activity.
Twenty purpose built 44 infra-red beam automated activity monitors were used to assess motor activity. Animals of one sex were tested at each occasion and were randomly allocated to the activity monitors. The tests were performed at approximately the same time each occasion (at least two hours after dosing), under similar laboratory conditions. The evaluation period was one hour for each animal. The time in seconds each animal was active and mobile was recorded for the overall one hour period and also during the final 20 % of the period (considered to be the asymptotic period, Reiter and Macphail 1979).

Forelimb/Hindlimb Grip Strength.
An automated grip strength meter was used. Each animal was allowed to grip the proximal metal bar of the meter with its forepaws. The animal was pulled by the base of the tail until its grip was broken. The animal was drawn along the trough of the meter by the tail until its hind paws gripped the distal metal bar. A record of the force required to break the grip for each animal was made. Three consecutive trials were performed for each animal. The assessment was developed from the method employed by Meyer et al (1979).

Sensory Reactivity
Each animal was individually assessed for sensory reactivity to auditory, visual and proprioceptive stimuli. This assessment was developed from the methods employed by Irwin (1968) and Moser et al (1988). The scoring system used is outlined in The Key to Scoring System and Explanation for Behavioural Assessments and Sensory Reactivity Tests.

The following parameters were observed: Grasp response, Touch escape, Vocalisation, Pupil reflex, Toe pinch, Blink reflex, Tail pinch, Startle reflex,
Finger approach

Body Weight
Individual body weights were recorded on Day 1 and at weekly intervals thereafter. Body weights were also recorded at terminal kill.

Food Consumption
Food consumption was recorded for each cage group at weekly intervals throughout the study.

Water Consumption
Water intake was observed daily, for each cage group, by visual inspection of the water bottles for any overt changes.

Ophthalmoscopic Examination
The eyes of all control and high dose animals were examined pre-treatment and before termination of treatment (during Week 12). Examinations included observation of the anterior structures of the eye, pupillary and corneal blink reflex. Following pupil dilation with 0.5 % Tropicamide solution (Mydriacyl® 0.5 %, Alcon Laboratories (UK) Ltd., Pentagon Park, Boundary Way, Hemel Hampstead, Hertfordshire), detailed examination of the internal structure of the eye using a direct ophthalmoscope was performed.


Laboratory Investigations
Haematological and blood chemical investigations were performed on all animals from each test and control group at the end of the study (Day 90). Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein. Where necessary repeat samples were obtained by cardiac puncture prior to necropsy on Day 91. Animals were not fasted prior to sampling.

Haematology, Haemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocyte count (RBC), Haematocrit (Hct), Erythrocyte indices- mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Total leucocyte count (WBC), Differential leucocyte count - neutrophils (Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eos) and basophils (Bas), Platelet count (PLT), Prothrombin time (CT) was assessed by ‘Innovin’ and Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was assessed by ‘Actin FS’ using samples collected into sodium citrate solution (0.11 mol/l).


Blood Chemistry

The following parameters were measured on plasma from blood collected into tubes containing lithium heparin anti-coagulant:
Urea, Inorganic phosphorus (P), Glucose, Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), Total protein (Tot.Prot.), Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase (AP), Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio (by calculation), Creatinine (Creat), Sodium (Na+), Total cholesterol (Chol), Potassium (K+), Total bilirubin (Bili), Chloride (Cl-), Bile acids, Calcium (Ca++)
Sacrifice and pathology:
Pathology
On completion of the dosing period all animals were killed by intravenous overdose of sodium pentobarbitone followed by exsanguination.
All animals were subjected to a full external and internal examination, and any macroscopic abnormalities were recorded.

Organ Weights
The following organs, removed from animals that were killed at the end of the study, were dissected free from fat and weighed before fixation:
Adrenals, Ovaries, Brain, Spleen, Epididymides, Testes, Heart, Thymus, Kidneys, Uterus, Liver

Histopathology
Samples of the following tissues were removed from all animals and preserved in buffered 10 % formalin, except where stated:

Adrenals, Ovaries, Aorta (thoracic), Pancreas, Bone & bone marrow (femur including stifle joint), Pituitary, Bone & bone marrow (sternum), Prostate,
Brain (including cerebrum, cerebellum and pons), Rectum, Caecum, Salivary glands (submaxillary), Colon , Sciatic nerve, Duodenum, Seminal vesicles, Epididymides, Skin (hind limb), Eyes*, Spinal cord (cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), Gross lesions, Heart, Spleen, Ileum (including Peyer’s patches), Stomach, Jejunum, Testes, Kidneys, Thymus, Liver, Thyroid/Parathyroid, Lungs (with bronchi), Tongue, Lymph nodes (mandibular and mesenteric), Trachea, Mammary glands, Urinary bladder, Muscle (skeletal), Uterus, Oesophagus

All tissues from control and 150 mg/kg bw/day dose group animals were prepared as paraffin blocks, sectioned at a nominal thickness of 5 µm and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin for subsequent microscopic examination.

Since there were indications of treatment-related changes, examination was subsequently extended to include similarly prepared sections of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes from animals in the low and intermediate groups.

Statistics:
Data were processed to give summary incidence or group mean and standard deviation values where appropriate. All data were summarised in tabular form.
Where considered appropriate, quantitative data was subjected to statistical analysis to detect the significance of intergroup differences from control; statistical significance was achieved at a level of p<0.05. Statistical analysis was performed on the following parameters:
Grip Strength, Motor Activity, Body Weight Change, Haematology, Blood Chemistry, Urinalysis (Volume and Specific Gravity), Absolute Organ Weights, Body Weight-Relative Organ Weights.
Data were analysed using the decision tree from the ProvantisTM Tables and Statistics Module as detailed below:
Where appropriate, data transformations were performed using the most suitable method. The homogeneity of variance from mean values was analysed using Bartlett’s test. Intergroup variance were assessed using suitable ANOVA, or if required, ANCOVA with appropriate covarities. Any transformed data were analysed to find the lowest treatment level that showed a significant effect using the Williams Test for parametric data or the Shirley Test for non-parametric data. If no dose response was found but the data shows non-homogeneity of means, the data were analysed by a stepwise Dunnett’s (parametric) or Steel (non-parametric) test to determine significant difference from the control group. Where the data were unsuitable for these analyses, pair-wise tests was performed using the Student t-test (parametric) or the Mann-Whitney U test (non-parametric).
Probability values (p) are presented as follows:
p<0.01 **
p<0.05 *
p>0.05 (not significant)
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males only. Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Please refer to the "Details on Results" section below
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Critical effects observed:
not specified

Mortality

There were no unscheduled deaths on the study.

Clinical observations

Neither the type, incidence nor distribution of clinical signs observed during the study indicated any adverse effect of treatment at dosages up to 150 mg/kg bw/day.

At 150 mg/kg bw/day all animals showed increased salivation post dosing during the study. Similar increased salivation post dosing was also observed at 30 mg/kg bw/day but the incidence and number of animals affected was much lower. At 5 mg/kg bw/day only one male showed increased post-dosing salivation during the study. Increased salivation is frequently observed when animals are dosed via the oral gavage route and this is generally considered to reflect distaste/irritancy of the test item formulation rather than any systemic effect of treatment.

Additionally at 150 mg/kg bw/day, two males and one female showed noisy respiration and one male also showed staining around the snout during the study. These findings are probably associated with the increased salivation observed at this dosage.

Functional observations

Behavioural Assessments

 Assessment of the animals in a standard arena did not reveal any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

 

Functional Performance Tests

Assessment of functional performance using grip strength and measurement of motor activity did not indicate any obvious effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments

Sensory reactivity to different stimuli (auditory, visual and proprioceptive) also appeared unaffected by treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

       

Body Weight

At 150 mg/kg bw/day body weight gain of males was lower than control throughout the treatment period, with differences frequency attaining statistical significance. By the end of the fourth week of treatment differences in absolute body weights attained statistical significance when compared with control and overall body weight gain of these males at the end of treatment was approximately 71% of their control counterparts. There was considered to be no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain of females at this dosage.

At 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day there was no effect of treatment on body weight or body weight gain for either sex.

           

Food Consumption

At 150 mg/kg bw/day food consumption of males tended to be lower than control throughout the treatment period. This finding was consistent with the lower body weight gains observed at this dosage and was considered to be related to treatment. For females at this dosage, food intake also tended to be lower than control throughout treatment; however on most occasions, these differences were unremarkable and overall these differences in food intake were considered to reflect normal biological variation rather than any effect of treatment.

At 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day was no obvious effect of treatment on food consumption for either sex.

    

Food Conversion Efficiency

There were no clear effects of treatment on food conversion efficiency for either sex at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day food efficiency was often lower than control, but these differences were generally not marked and did not indicate any consistent adverse effect of treatment.

Water Consumption

Visual assessment of water intake did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

   

Opthalmoscopic Examination

Ophthalmic examination during the last week of treatment did not indicate any effect of treatment for either sex at 150 mg/kg bw/day.

              

Oestrus Cycle Assessments

Assessment of female oestrus cycles did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

    

       

Laboratory Investigations

Haematology


Males

There was no clear effect of treatment on haematology parameters at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day lower mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell volume attained statistical significance when compared with control. The majority of values for these treated animals were within the historical control range for these parameters and, in the absence of any histopathological correlates, these differences were considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.   

For males at 30 mg/kg bw/day, lower platelet count attained statistical significance when compared with control but all values for treated animals were within the historical control range. In the absence of any similar effect at 150 mg/kg bw/day, this finding was considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.  

Females

At all dosages, lower mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration attained statistical significance when compared with control. For mean cell haemoglobin concentration, the majority of individual values for all dosage groups were outside the historical control. For mean cell haemoglobin, four of the ten individual values at 150 mg/kg bw/day were outside the historical control range; however, at lower dosages only one value at 5 mg/kg bw/day was below this historical range. 

At 150 mg/kg bw/day these findings were accompanied by lower mean haemoglobin and mean cell volume, with differences from control again attaining statistical significance compared with control. While the majority of values for mean haemoglobin at 150 mg/kg bw/day exceeded the historical control range, all values for mean cell volume were within this historical range.

Additionally at 150 mg/kg bw/day the number of neutrophils was statistically significantly higher than control, with the majority of individual values exceeding the historical control range. There was no accompanying statistically significant difference from control observed for total leucocyte count.

     

Blood Chemistry

For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day, lower levels of total protein, accompanied by lower blood albumin levels and an increase for albumin/globulin ratio, all attained statistical significance compared with control. The majority of individual values for total protein were outside the historical control range, but only a few values for albumin and albumin/globulin ratio were outside this historical range.     

Higher levels of bile acids for males at 150 mg/kg bw/day also attained statistical significance compared with control. All individual values for treated animals exceeded the historical control range but so did the majority of individual control values.

Additionally males at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed a decrease in creatinine levels, although only individual values for three animals were outside the historical control range. Lower levels of blood urea and total cholesterol also attained statistical significance compared to control but all individual values were within the historical control range.   

For males at 5 and 30 mg/kg bw/day statistically significant differences in blood chemistry parameters from control were restricted to lower creatinine levels and all individual values for treated animals were within the historical control range.

There were no statistically significant differences in blood chemistry parameters from control for females at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Pathology

Necropsy

There were no findings observed at macroscopic necropsy examination that indicated any adverse effect of treatment.

Two control females and one female at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed reddened lungs, while another female at 150 mg/kg bw/day showed pale foci on the lungs at necropsy. In the absence of any treatment related effects being detected for the lungs during microscopic examination, these findings are considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.

Organ Weights

At 150 mg/kg bw/day, absolute liver weights were lower than control for males but higher than control for females, with differences from control for both sexes attaining statistical significance. Body weight-relative values probably represent a more accurate indicator of treatment effect for this organ and for both sexes mean values were increased compared with control; differences attained statistical significance and the majority of individual body weight relative values exceeding the historical control range. 

For females at 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control, with the majority of individual body weight relative values for treated animal exceeding the historical control range. 

Additionally for females at 150 mg/kg bw/day higher absolute and body weight-relative uterus weights attained statistical significance when compared to control. However, these mean values at 150 mg/kg bw/day were influenced by one female with a particularly high uterus weight; no statistically significant difference from control was apparent when this animal was excluded. In the absence of any supporting histopathological change at this dosage this finding was considered incidental and of no toxicological significance.       

For males at 30 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control. However, there were no statistically significant differences in kidney weights for males at 150 mg/kg bw/day and the majority of individual values at 30 mg/kg bw/day were within the historical control range. In the absence of any evidence of histopathological kidney change at 150 mg/kg bw/day, the increases in kidney weights were considered incidental and unrelated to treatment.

There were no statistically significant differences in organ weights for females at 30 mg/kg bw/day or either sex at 5 mg/kg bw/day.

Histopathology

Treatment at 150 mg/kg bw/day produced minimal or mild diffuse epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach in most animals; minimal or mild focal erosion of the forestomach, minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal oedema and minimal focal dyskeratosis were also present in the forestomach of a few animals. In addition, minimal to marked foamy macrophages were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine (principally the jejunum but also in the duodenum and ileum) and also in the sinuses of the mesenteric lymph node for both sexes at this dosage.

At 30 mg/kg bw/day treatment-related changes were confined to the forestomach in which there were incidences of minimal focal epithelial hyperplasia, minimal focal erosion, submucosal oedema and minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration.

No treatment-related changes were observed in the small intestine or mesenteric lymph node.

No treatment-related changes were observed for either sex at 5 mg/kg bw/day.

All of the other histopathological findings encountered were considered to have arisen spontaneously or atpost mortem.

Conclusions:
At 150 mg/kg bw/day, the extent of microscopic changes to the fore stomach and gastro-intestinal tract apparent for both sexes was considered to exclude this dosage from being a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). At 30 mg/kg bw/day, microscopic changes were restricted to the fore stomach and was considered to represent a local irritancy effect of the test item rather than systemic toxicity. As such, a dosage of 30 mg/kg bw/day may be considered the NOAEL for systemic toxicity.

A dosage of 5 mg/kg bw/day was considered to represent the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL).
Executive summary:

Introduction.The study was designed to investigate the systemic toxicity of the test item and is compatible with the following regulatory guidelines:

i)         The OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 408 "Subchronic Oral Toxicity - Rodent: 90 Day Study” (Adopted 21 September 1998).

ii)        The EU Annex B Method B26 - “Subchronic Oral Toxicity Test - Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents” - updated 21 August 2001.

iii)       The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Health Effects Test Guidelines, OPPTS 870.3100 - 90 Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents.

This study was also designed to be compatible with Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008, laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

Methods.The test item was administered continuously by gavage to three groups, each of ten male and ten female Wistar Han™: RccHan™: WIST strain rats, for ninety consecutive days, at dose levels of 5, 30 and 150 mg/kg bw/day. A control group of ten males and ten females was dosed with vehicle alone (Arachis oil BP) over the same treatment period.

Clinical signs, functional observations, body weight change, dietary intake and water consumption were monitored during the study. Haematology and blood chemistry were evaluated for all animals at the end of the study. Ophthalmoscopic examination was also performed on control group and high dose animals.

All animals were subjected to gross necropsy examination and histopathological evaluation of selected tissues from high dose and control animals was performed. These examinations were extended for the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes to include animals from the low and intermediate dosage groups. 


Results.

Mortality.There were no unscheduled deaths on the study.

Clinical Observations.There were no clinical signs observed that were considered to be of any toxicological significance at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day during the study.

Behavioural Assessment.Behavioural assessments did not reveal any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day. 

Functional Performance Tests.Functional performance tests did not indicate any effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments.Sensory reactivity assessments did not indicate any effects of treatment at dosages of 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Body Weight.At 150 mg/kg bw/day body weight gain of males was lower than control throughout the treatment period with overall body weight gain being approximately 71% of control by the end of treatment.

Food Consumption.At 150 mg/kg bw/day food consumption of males was generally lower than control throughout the treatment period.

Food Conversion Efficiency.Food conversion efficiency was considered to have been unaffected by treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Water Consumption.Visual assessment of water intake did not indicate any effect of treatment at 5, 30 or 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Ophthalmoscopy.Ophthalmic examination did not indicate any effect of treatment at 150 mg/kg bw/day.

Haematology.For females at 150 mg/kg bw/day, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell volume were statistically significantly lower than control and the number of neutrophils was statistically significantly higher than control.

Blood Chemistry.For males at 150 mg/kg bw/day, lower levels of total protein, accompanied by lower blood albumin levels and an increase for albumin/globulin ratio, all attained statistical significance compared with control. Higher levels of bile acids and lower levels of creatinine also attained statistical significance compared with control.

Necropsy.There were no macroscopic findings observed at necropsy examination that were considered to be associated with treatment.

Organ Weights.At 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute liver weight for males and lower absolute liver weight for females attained statistical significance compared to control. Body weight-relative values were statistically significantly higher than control for both sexes. 

At 150 mg/kg bw/day, higher absolute and body weight-relative female kidney weights attained statistical significance when compared with control.

Histopathology.At 150 mg/kg bw/day minimal or mild diffuse epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the forestomach were observed in most animals with minimal or mild focal erosion of the forestomach, minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal oedema and minimal focal dyskeratosis being present in the forestomach for a few animals. In addition, minimal to marked foamy macrophages were present in the lamina propria of the small intestine (principally the jejunum but also in the duodenum and ileum) and also in the sinuses of the mesenteric lymph node for both sexes.

At 30 mg/kg bw/day treatment-related changes were restricted to incidences of minimal focal epithelial hyperplasia, minimal focal erosion, submucosal oedema and minimal or mild submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration of the forestomach. No treatment-related changes were observed in the small intestine or mesenteric lymph node.

Conclusion.At 150 mg/kg bw/day, the extent of microscopic changes to the fore stomach and gastro-intestinal tract apparent for both sexes was considered to exclude this dosage from being a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). At 30 mg/kg bw/day, microscopic changes were restricted to the fore stomach and were considered to represent a local irritancy effect of the test item rather than systemic toxicity. As such, a dosage of 30 mg/kg bw/day may be considered the NOAEL for systemic toxicity.

A dosage of 5 mg/kg bw/day was considered to represent the No Observed Effect Level (NOEL).

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Between 22 September 2009 and 07 December 2009.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted in compliance with agreed protocols, with no or minor deviations from standard test guidelines and/or minor methodological deficiencies, which do not affect the quality of the relevant results.
Justification for type of information:
The structural similarity for the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is that it has ca 80% C18 unsaturated, 6% C18 saturated and 9% C16 and ca 1.5% C14. This compares to tallow such as in the target Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides which typically has 35% C18 unsaturated, 26% C18 saturated, 35% C16 and 2.4% C14 and 1.3% C17. The higher degree of unsaturation in the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is expected to result in higher reactivity from the increased double bonds in the unsaturated C18 at 80% as opposed to 35% in the tallow. Therefore the systemic toxicity of the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol is not expected to be an underestimate of the systemic toxicity of the target Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides.. Using the NOAEL of 30 mg/kg from the 90 day study on the 2, 2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol will result in DNELs that will be conservative and provide adequate protection from the systemic toxicity of Ethanol, 2, 2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source:
Wistar Han™:HsdRccHan™:WIST strain rats from Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Blackthorn, Bicester, Oxon

- Age at study initiation:
six to eight weeks old

- Weight at study initiation:
195 to 230g (male), 149 to 181g (female)

- Fasting period before study:
Not applicable

- Housing:
The animals were housed in groups of five in polpropylene grid floor cages suspended over trays lined with absorbent paper.

- Diet:
A pelleted diet (Rodent 2014C Teklad Global Certified Diet, Harlan Laboratories U.K., Oxon, UK) was used (ad libitum).

- Water (e.g. ad libitum):
ad libitum mains water was supplied from polycarbonate bottles attached to the cage. The diet and drinking water was considered not to have any level of contaminant.

- Acclimation period:
Sevenr 7 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

- Temperature:
: (°C): 21 ± 2

- Humidity (%):
: 55 ± 15

- Air changes (per hr):
: At least fifteen air changes per hour

- Photoperiod (hr dark / hrs light):
: 12 hours continuous light and 12 hours darkness

IN-LIFE DATES:
From: Day1 To:Day 28
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
arachis oil
Details on oral exposure:
Method of administration:
Gavage
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
For the purpose of this study the test material was prepared at the appropriate concentrations
as a solution in Arachis oil BP


DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency):
Not applicable

- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food):
Not applicable.

- Storage temperature of food:
Not applicable.


VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle(if other than water): Most suitable

- Concentration in vehicle:
7.5, 25 and 62.5/37.5 mg/ml.

- Amount of vehicle (if gavage):
4 ml/kg bodyweight

- Lot/batch no. (if required):
Unknown

- Purity:
Unknown
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of test material formulations was determined by gas chromatography. The test material formulations were sampled and analysis showed stability for at least twenty-one days. The analytical method has been satisfactorily validated in terms of linearity, specificity and accuracy for the purposes of the study. Dose formulations were prepared twice during the treatment period and stored at approximately 4ºC in the dark under nitrogen.

See Attached Appendix 16 - Chemical Analysis of Test Material Formulations, Methods and Results
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Oral administration of the test substance to all rats for a period of twenty-eight consecutive days followed in selected control and high dose rats by a fourteen day treatment-free period.
Frequency of treatment:
Dosing regime: 7 days/week
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
Dose levels of 30, 100 and 250/150 mg/kg/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Male and Female: 10 animals per sex at 0 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 5 animals per sex at 30 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 5 animals per sex at 100 mg/kg/day
Male and Female: 10 animals per sex at 250/150 mg/kg/day
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
Based Preliminary Seven Day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Range-Finder in the Rat

- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random):
Random

- Rationale for selecting satellite groups:
To determine potential regression of any detected systemic responses elicited by administration of the test material

- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups:
Fourteen days

- Section schedule rationale (if not random):
Random
Positive control:
Not applicable
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:

CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

- Time schedule: All animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health or behavioural change immediately before dosing, up to thirty minutes post dosing and one and five hours after dosing during the working week. Animals were observed immediately before and after dosing and one hour after dosing at weekends. All observations were recorded.

- Cage side observations checked in table [1] please see attached tables

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes see above
- Time schedule: As above

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations:
Individual bodyweights were recorded on Day 1 (prior to start of treatment) and on Days 8, 15, 22, 29 and 36. Terminal bodyweights were also recorded at the Day 29 or Day 43 necropsies.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): Not applicable

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Weekly food efficiency (bodyweight gain/food intake) was calculated.

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No
- Time schedule for examinations:
Water intake was measured gravimetric throughout te treatment period (Day 1 to Day 28)

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data:
Not applicable
- Time schedule for examinations:
Not applicable
- Dose groups that were examined:
Not applicable


HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
At the end of the treatment period (Day 28) and at the end of the treatment-free recovery period (Day 42).
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No
Not applicable
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals:
Five males and five females
- Parameters checked in table [11] please see attached Tables.
Routine haematological parameters were examined.


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood:
At the end of the treatment period (Day 28) and at the end of the treatment-free recovery period (Day 42).
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No
Not applicable
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals:
Five males and five females
- Parameters checked in table [12] please see attached Tables


URINALYSIS: No
- Time schedule for collection of urine: Not applicable
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Not applicable
- Animals fasted: Not applicable
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes please see attached Table 14

All animals were subjected to a full external and internal macroscopic examination and any abnormalities were recorded.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes please see attached Table 15

All control and high dose animals were subjected to a full histological examination and low and intermediate group animals were routinely subjected to examination of liver and spleen.

In addition: Since there were indications of treatment-related liver, small intestine, stomach and mesenteric lymph nodes changes, examination was subsequently extended to include similarly prepared sections of the liver, small intestine, stomach and mesenteric lymph nodes from all animals in the other treatment groups.

Other examinations:
In addition, sections of testes and epididymides from all Control and high dose males were stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and examined.
Statistics:
All data was summarised in tabular form. Where appropriate, quantitative data were analysed by the Provantis™ Tables and Statistics Module. For each variable, the most suitable transformation of the data was found, the use of possible covariates checked and the homogeneity of means assessed using ANOVA or ANCOVA and Bartlett’s test. The transformed data were analysed to find the lowest treatment level that showed a significant effect, using the Williams Test for parametric data or the Shirley Test for non-parametric data.
If no dose response was found, but the data showed non-homogeneity of means, the data were analysed by a stepwise Dunnett (parametric) or Steel (non-parametric) test to determine significant differences from the control group. Finally, if required, pair-wise tests were performed using the Student t-test (parametric) or the Mann-Whitney U test (non-parametric).
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
effects observed, treatment-related
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
Twenty-Eight Day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Toxicity Study in the Rat

Results

Mortality:

One female treated at the high dose level was found dead on Day 7. There were no further unscheduled deaths.

Clinical Observations:

Episodes of increased salivation, noisy respiration and hunched posture were evident in high dose animals from the first week of treatment. Red/brown fur staining (males) and generalised fur loss (females) was also evident at the high dose level. Animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed incidents of increased salivation from Day 10 onwards. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 30 mg/kg/day.

Behavioural Assessment:

There were no treatment-related changes in the behavioural parameters measured.

Functional Performance Tests:

There were no toxicologically significant changes in functional performance.

Sensory Reactivity Assessments:

There were no treatment-related changes in sensory reactivity.

Bodyweight:

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the first week of treatment. Males from this treatment group also showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the final week of treatment. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Food Consumption:

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in food consumption and food efficiency during Week 1. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Water Consumption:

No treatment-related changes in water intake were detected.

Haematology:

There were no treatment related effects detected in the haematological parameters measured.

Blood Chemistry:

There were no toxicologically significant effects detected in the blood chemical parameters measured.

Organ Weights:

Females treated at the high dose level showed an increase in liver weight both absolute and relative to terminal bodyweight. No such effects were detected in males treated at the high dose level or in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

Necropsy:

There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected.

Stage of Oestrus:

There were no treatment-related effects detected in the stages of oestrus recorded.

Histopathology:

The following microscopic treatment-related changes were observed:

Liver: Centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement was seen in relation to treatment for females only treated at the high dose level but not at any other doselevel. The condition was observed to have regressed among recovery high dose animals following an additional fourteen days without treatment.
Hepatocyte enlargement is commonly observed in the rodent liver following the administration of xenobiotics and, in the absence of associated inflammatory or degenerative changes, is generally considered to be adaptive in nature.

Small Intestine: Vacuolation of lamina propria cells was observed as an effect of treatment in the jejunum and ileum, and occasionally in the duodenum, of animals of either sex treated at the high dose level. Two males treated with 100 mg/kg/day also demonstrated vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the jejunum which was considered to be an effect of treatment, but there were no such effects at the 30 mg/kg/day dose level.
The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of two female rats which demonstrated minimal residual vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the ileum.

Stomach: Acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, subepithelial inflammatory cell infiltrates, subepithelial oedema and epithelial ulceration/erosion were seen in the forestomach among animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day were similarly affected and an effect of treatment at this dose level cannot be excluded. All conditions were observed to have regressed completely among recovery high dose animals of either sex following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

Mesenteric Lymph Node: Foamy vacuolation of histiocytes was seen as a consequence of treatment in animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One female treated with 30 mg/kg/day was similarly affected but vacuolation of histiocytes is encountered occasionally as a spontaneous change and an effect of treatment at this dose level is unconvincing. The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of three male rats and one female rat for which there was minimal residual vacuolation of histiocytes.


Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
systemic toxicity
Effect level:
30 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see 'Remark'
Critical effects observed:
not specified

See Attatched Tables, Figures, Appendices and Addenda

Fourteen day Repeated Dose Oral (Gavage) Range-Finding Toxicity Study - Results.

 

Mortality.

One female treated with 500 mg/kg/day was found dead on Day 7. The remaining animals from this treatment group were terminated the same day. There were no further unscheduled deaths during the study.

 

Clinical Observations.

Males treated with 500 mg/kg/day showed incidences of tiptoe gait, red/brown stained snout, increased salivation, ptosis, pilo erection, lethargy, hunched posture, dehydration, diarrhoea or pallor of the extremities prior to termination. Females from this treatment group also showed red/brown stained snout and ano-genital region and increased salivation.

 

Animals of either sex treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed episodes of increased salivation between Days 8 and 14.

 

No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Bodyweight.

Prior to termination, all surviving animals treated with 500 mg/kg/day had lost bodyweight. Males treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in bodyweight gain throughout the treatment period. Females from this treatment group showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 1 and 3 only. 

 

Males treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 3 and 5 whilst females from this treatment group showed a reduction in bodyweight gain between Days 5 and 8. Recovery in these animals was evident thereafter.

 

No such effects were detected in females treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Food Consumption.

Prior to termination, all animals treated with 500 mg/kg/day showed a reduction in food consumption. Animals of either sex treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed a slight reduction in food consumption throughout the treatment period.

 

No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Water Consumption.

Males treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed an increase in water consumption throughout the treatment period. No such effects were detected in females treated with 250 mg/kg/day or animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day.

 

Necropsy.

At 500 mg/kg/day macroscopic observations included gaseous distension in the intestines, dark liver, dark pancreas, distended stomach, sloughing of the stomach and a raised limiting ridge. The female that was found dead on Day 7 from this treatment group had fluid filled intestines and red lungs. One male and one female treated with 250 mg/kg/day showed sloughing on the non-glandular region of the stomach.

 

Conclusion.

Oral administration of the test material Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to fourteen consecutive days at dose levels of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day resulted in treatment related effects in animals of either sex in all dose groups. 

Conclusions:
The oral administration of Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to twenty eight consecutive days at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day (reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females)) resulted in treatment related changes in animals of either sex from all treatment groups. A No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) has therefore not been established.
The gastric changes detected in one male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day may be considered to be adverse, however because a squamous-lined counterpart to the rodent forestomach is not present in human stomachs, these effects in this study, are not considered to be indicative of a hazard to human health and, for the purposes of hazard evaluation, the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL), should be regarded as 30 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

Introduction.

The study was designed to investigate the systemic toxicity of the test material. It complies the requirements for notification of a new chemical substance in the EC and follows the test method described in Commission Directive 96/54/EC (Method B7) and the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 407 "Repeated Dose 28 Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents" (adopted 03 October 2008).

This study was also designed to comply with Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008, laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

 

Methods.

The test material was administered by gavage to three groups, each of five male and five female Wistar Han™:HsdRccHan™:WIST strain rats, for up to twenty-eight consecutive days, at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. Due to significant actual bodyweight losses detected in high dose level males on Day 8 the high dose level was reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females). A control group of five males and five females was dosed with vehicle alone (Arachis oil BP). Two recovery groups, each of five males and five females, were treated with the high dose (250/150 mg/kg/day) or the vehicle alone for twenty-eight consecutive days and then maintained without treatment for a further fourteen days.

 

Clinical signs, functional observations, bodyweight development, dietary intake and waterconsumption were monitored during the study. Haematology and blood chemistry were evaluated for all animals at the end of the study. All animals were subjected to gross necropsy examination and histopathological evaluation of selected tissues was performed

 

Results.

 

Mortality.One female treated at the high dose level was found dead on Day 7. There were no further unscheduled deaths.

 

Clinical Observations.

Episodes of increased salivation, noisy respiration and hunched posture were evident in high dose animals from the first week of treatment. Red/brown fur staining (males) and generalised fur loss (females) was also evident at the high dose level. Animals of either sex treated with 100 mg/kg/day showed incidents of increased salivation from Day 10 onwards. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Behavioural Assessment.

There were no treatment-related changes in the behavioural parameters measured.

 

Functional Performance Tests.

There were no toxicologically significant changes in functional performance.

 

Sensory Reactivity Assessments.

There were no treatment-related changes in sensory reactivity.

 

Bodyweight.

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the first week of treatment. Males from this treatment group also showed a reduction in bodyweight gain during the final week of treatment. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Food Consumption.

Animals of either sex treated at the high dose level showed a reduction in food consumption and food efficiency during Week 1. No such effects were detected in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Water Consumption.

No treatment-related changes in water intake were detected.

 

Haematology.

There were no treatment related effects detected in the haematological parameters measured.

 

Blood Chemistry.

There were no toxicologically significant effects detected in the blood chemical parameters measured.

 

Organ Weights.

Females treated at the high dose level showed an increase in liver weight both absolute and relative to terminal bodyweight. No such effects were detected in males treated at the high dose level or in animals of either sex treated with 100 or 30 mg/kg/day.

 

Necropsy.

There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected.

 

Stage of Oestrus.

There were no treatment-related effects detected in the stages of oestrus recorded.

 

Histopathology.

The following microscopic treatment-related changes were observed:

 

Liver:

Centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement was seen in relation to treatment for females only treated at the high dose level but not at any other dose level.

The condition was observed to have regressed among recovery high dose animals following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

Hepatocyte enlargement is commonly observed in the rodent liver following the administration of xenobiotics and, in the absence of associated inflammatory or degenerative changes, is generally considered to be adaptive in nature.

 

Small Intestines:

Vacuolation of lamina propria cells was observed as an effect of treatment in the jejunum and ileum, and occasionally in the duodenum, of animals of either sex treated at the high dose level. Two males treated with 100 mg/kg/day also demonstrated vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the jejunum which was considered to be an effect of treatment, but there were no such effects at the 30 mg/kg/day dose level.

The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of two female rats which demonstrated minimal residual vacuolation of lamina propria cells in the ileum. 

 

Stomach:

Acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, subepithelial inflammatory cell infiltrates, subepithelial oedema and epithelial ulceration/erosion were seen in the forestomach among animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day were similarly affected and an effect of treatment at this dose level cannot be excluded.

All conditions were observed to have regressed completely among recovery high dose animals of either sex following an additional fourteen days without treatment.

 

Mesenteric Lymph Node:

Foamy vacuolation of histiocytes was seen as a consequence of treatment in animals of either sex treated at the high dose level and at 100 mg/kg/day. One female treated with 30 mg/kg/day was similarly affected but vacuolation of histiocytes is encountered occasionally as a spontaneous change and an effect of treatment at this dose level is unconvincing.

The condition was observed to have generally regressed among recovery high dose animals following completion of the recovery period, with the exception of three male rats and one female rat for which there was minimal residual vacuolation of histiocytes.

 

Conclusion.

The oral administration of Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oleyl amine (CAS Number 25307-17-9) to rats for a period of up to twenty eight consecutive days at dose levels of 30, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day (reduced to 150 mg/kg/day on Day 9 (males) and Day 8 (females)) resulted in treatment related changes in animals of either sex from all treatment groups. A No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) has therefore not been established. 

 

The gastric changes detected in one male and one female treated with 30 mg/kg/day may be considered to be adverse, however because a squamous-lined counterpart to the rodent forestomach is not present in human stomachs, these effects in this study, are not considered to be indicative of a hazard to human health and, for the purposes of hazard evaluation, the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL), should be regarded as 30 mg/kg/day.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
30 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The information available for Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides and the read across sources 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol and Ethanol, 2.2’-iminobis,-N-tallow alkyl derivatives are consistent. Adverse effects were mainly seen at local effects in the gastrointestinal tract including irritation to the fore stomach and foamy macrophages. There were no apparent systemic adverse effects, these local effects leading to decreased bodyweight and bodyweight gain in the 150mg/kg bodyweight /day top dose groups assumed to be secondary to the local effects seen in the gastrointestinal tract. The consistency in the effects and the NOAEL values together with the similarities in structure, in particular in their carbon chain distribution are sufficient support for the read across used.
System:
gastrointestinal tract
Organ:
duodenum
jejunum
mesenteric lymph node
stomach

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Quality of whole database:
Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides has a low vapour pressure and is manufactured and sold as a 50% paste with 25% diethylene glycol and 25% water. Inhalation is therefore not an expected route of exposure. The ECHA guidance documents allow and inhalation DNEL to be calculated based on the oral repeat dose NOAEL, which will be done in this case.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Quality of whole database:
Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides was not irritating to skin and only irritating to eyes, so any local effects would be limited to irritation so no data on local inhalation effects are required.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Quality of whole database:
Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides was not irritating to skin and only irritating to eyes, so any local effects would be limited to irritation. The ECHA Guidance document allows the calculation of dermal long tern DNELs based on the oral NOAEL. This is conservative approach as dermal absorption can be expected to be less than by the oral route.

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Quality of whole database:
Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides was not irritating to skin so not repeated dose dermal local effects are expected and no DNEL for this is required.

Mode of Action Analysis / Human Relevance Framework

Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides is not expected to have systemic toxic effects based on read across to the N-oxides and the read across sources 2,2’-(octadec-9-enylimino)diethanol and Ethanol, 2.2’-iminobis,-N-tallow alkyl derivatives. Effects of treatment would be limited to local effects in the gastrointestinal tract such as foamy macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the jejunum and duodenum. This resulted in reduced bodyweights in the 150mg/kg bodyweight /day males. No systemic adverse effects were identified so no mode of action can be proposed.

Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

The toxic effects seen in the source studies can be attributed to oral dosing with a corrosive/irritant test substance which caused effects due to the direct contact with the forestomach and to a much lesser extent the gastrointestinal tract (small intestines). The effects were seen at dose levels in the range of 30 -150mg/kg/day and therefore potentially classifiable as Category 2 (10 -100mg/kg) for specific target organ toxicity after repeated exposure, when based on a 90 day study. However there were no indications of any specific systemic toxic effects such as serious organ damage even at 150mg/kg. Therefore as the only effects seen at 150mg/kg of 2, 2’-(Octadec-9-enylimino) bisethanol CAS No 25307-17-9 were direct irritant effects, with limited local effects only in the forestomach at 30mg/kg, it does not meet the CLP(GHS) criteria for classification for specific target organ toxicity. 

Therefore based on this as the source for read across to the target substance Ethanol, 2,2’-iminobis-N-tallow alkyl derivatives, N-oxides, no classification for Specific Target Organ Toxicity from Repeat Exposure is justified (STOT RE).