Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Read-across approach

In the assessment of the environmental fate and behaviour of selenium compounds, a gouping and read-across approach is followed based on all relevant and reliable information available for different Se compounds without concern on toxicity from other (non Se) moieties (SeO2, H2SeO3, Na2SeO3, Na2SeO4 and seleno-methionine). This grouping of selenium compounds for estimating their properties is based on the assumption that properties are likely to be similar or follow a similar pattern as a result of the presence of the common selenium ion.

This assumption can be considered valid when

i) differences in solubility among Se compounds do not affect the results for behaviour (adsorption, bioaccumulation etc.), and

ii) after emission to the environment, the various Se compounds do not show differences in speciation of selenium in the environment.

The reliable data selected for the environmental fate and behaviour of selenium are all based on either monitoring data of prevailing elemental selenium concentrations in water, soil, sediment, suspended matter and organisms or on experimental results with H2SeO3, Na2SeO3, Na2SeO4 and seleno-methionine.

Selenium is chemically related to sulphur and can exist in a multitude of different oxidation states from -2 to +6 and in both organic and inorganic forms. Under conditions commonly found in oxic fresh waters (i.e., pH between 5 and 9; redox potential [Eh] between 0.5 and 1 V), the hexavalent oxidation state is predicted to be the most prevalent (Takeno, 2005). However, tetravalent selenium also exists under some conditions (low pH, low redox potential).

No information is available on the speciation of the selenium compounds of interest upon dissolution in water and on the redox speciation of the selenium compounds during the various tests available. Some measured data were found on speciation of selenium in the environment. These results confirm that hexavalent Se dominates in most surface waters, while elemental Se and organic Se species dominate in sediments (Zhang and Moore, 1996; Van Derveer and Canton, 1997). Based on limited information available, the environmental conditions are expected to largely control the (redox) speciation of selenium upon dissolution in water, regardless of the Se compound added. However, for soil, a significant difference in adsorption of selenite (SeO32-) and selenate (SeO42-) was observed, with lower adsorption for selenate (median log Kp of 0.87 L/kg dry weight) compared to selenite (median log Kp of 1.73 L/kg dry weight).

Therefore difference between selenite and selenate substances is made for assessment of adsorption/desorptionon soil and for terrestrial endpoints, while all data based on monitoring data or on soluble Se substances are used in a read-across approach for bioaccumulation and adsorption/desorption in sediments and suspended matter. Results for environmental fate and behaviour are all expressed based on elemental selenium concentrations.

See also read-across justification document attached to IUCLID section 13.

Zhang Y.Q., Moore J.N. (1996) Selenium Fractionation and Speciation in a Wetland System. Environmental Science & Technology 30:2613-2619.

Van Derveer W.D., Canton S.P. (1997) Selenium Sediment Toxicity Thresholds and Derivation of Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Biota of Western Streams. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:1260-1268.

Takeno N. 2005. Atlas of Eh–pH diagrams. Intercomparison of thermodynamic databases. Geological Survey of Japan Open File Report No. 419. Tokyo (JP): National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Center for Deep Geological Environments. 285 p. Available from:

http://www.gsj.jp/GDB/openfile/files/no0419/openfile419e.pdf

Summary data for environmental fate and behaviour

Biodegradation/hydrolysis

There is no requirement for data on (bio)degradability of inorganic selenium substances. The chemical safety assessment will be based on elemental Se concentrations, regardless of their (pH-dependent) speciation in the environment and therefore, (a)biotic degradation and transformation processes in the environment are considered not relevant. Although the speciation of Se in the environment may change, elemental Se will not be eliminated by (bio)degradation reactions. This elemental-based assessment (pooling all speciation forms together) can be considered as a worst-case assumption for the chemical assessment.

Adsorption/desorption

Reliable data for distribution of Se between solid and liquid phase in soil, sediment and suspended matter are available for Na2SeO3 and Na2SeO4 (soil) or based on monitoring data of elemental selenium in the environment (sediment and suspended matter). All results for sediment and suspended matter were used in a read-across approach. For soil, a significant difference in sorption was observed between selenite and selenate, and therefore data were not combined and the 50th percentile of the Kp soil values for selenite and selenate were selected for the chemical safety assessment of tetravalent end hexavalent Se compounds, respectively.

Bioaccumulation

There is substantial information available on bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of Se in freshwater organisms (fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants and cyanobacteria, tadpoles) and on trophic transfer of Se from primary producers (algae) to primary consumers (aquatic invertebrates) and from primary consumers or secondary consumers to secondary or tertiary consumers (fish). Reliable information has been obtained from monitoring studies (ambient Se) as well as laboratory experiments exposing organisms to waterborne/and or dietary Se added as Na2SeO3, Na2SeO4, H2SeO3 or seleno-methionine. The identified information was combined and used in a read-across approach for Se compounds.