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Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only short summary available, it seems that tests were performed according to scientific standards
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not reported which guideline was followed. Selenium was added as sodium selenate, and weathered/aged in soil via alternating wetting/drying cycles for 13 weeks. Soil organisms were then exposed for a non-reported test duration for establishment of EC20 ecotoxicological benchmarks based on reproduction.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
Analytical monitoring:
Details on sampling:
Soil samples from each treatment were taken for Se analysis at test initiation and finalization.
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Selenium was added as sodium selenate and weathered/aged in soil via alternating wetting/drying cycles for 13 weeks.
Test organisms (species):
Folsomia candida
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
no data
Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
exact test duration not reported
Test temperature:
no data
pH (if soil or dung study):
no data
Photoperiod and lighting:
no data
Details on test conditions:
- Test container (material, size): no data
- Amount of soil or substrate: no data
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): no data
- No. of replicates per treatment group: no data
- No. of replicates per control: no data
- No. of replicates per vehicle control: no data

- Sassafras sandy loam (fine-loamy siliceous, mesic Typic Hapludult)
- % sand: 70%
- % silt: 13%
- % clay: 17%
- Organic carbon (%): 1% organic matter
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): reproduction
Nominal and measured concentrations:
no data
Key result
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
2.35 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as EC20/2; test duration not reported
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
4.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: test duration not reported
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC20 estimated by nonlinear regression
This Klimisch 2 study reports the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of sodium selenate on the reproduction of Folsomia candida. The organisms were exposed to spiked soil after 13 weeks of equilibration via alternating wetting/drying cycles. The exposure duration was not reported. The EC20 for reproduction was reported to be 4.7 mg Se/kg dw. An approximate NOEC was obtained dividing the EC20 by a factor of 2, resulting in a NOEC value of 2.35 mg Se/kg dw.

Description of key information

One reliable NOEC value for chronic selenate toxicity to reproduction of Folsomia candida was retrieved (Checkai et al., 2004; test substance disodium selenate). A NOEC of 2.23 mg Se/kg dw was derived by dividing the reported EC20 of 4.7 mg Se/kg dw by a factor 2. The NOEC was expressed based on added elemental Se concentration in soil and was taken forward to the derivation of the PNEC according to the statistical extrapolation approach

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Only one reliable (Klimisch 2) result is available for the effect of Na2SeO4 to reproduction of the terrestrial arthropod Folsomia candida, reporting a NOEC of 2.35 mg Se/kg soil (calculated as EC20/2, based on added Se concentration; Checkai et al., 2004). No results were available for the effect of selenite on terrestrial arthropods.

Supporting information is available on the toxicity of various Se compounds to bees (Apis mellifera). The effects of organic ((methyl-)selenocysteine) and inorganic (selenite and selenate) selenium compounds in the diet (sucrose) on larval and forager stages were studied. EC50 values ranged from 0.72 to 161 mg Se/L. Organic selenium compounds were less toxic (> factor 3) then inorganic compounds, but differences selenite and selenate were limited. The most sensitive endpoint was found for the larval survival of Apis mellifera exposed to selenate (EC50 = 0.72 mg Se/L).