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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Remarks:
screening
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
Please refer also to the read-across statement attached in section 13

1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH (ENDPOINT LEVEL)
The target and the source substances are structurally similar substances that share the common organometallic core structure consisting of a central zinc metal bonded to four alkyldithiophosphate esters (ligands) by coordinate covalent bonds -Zn[(S2P(OR)2]2. Structural variations between the target and the source substances are related only to the alkyl (R) groups of the alkyldithiophosphate ligands. The substances in this category give thus rise to an (identical) common compound Phosphorodithioic acid moiety that can be released by the breakage of ester bonds and dissociation from the Zinc complex to which the organism would be exposed if the target substance was tested in the toxicity studies. Exposure to the parent compounds (non-transformed constituents) and to the counter alkyl alcohols, possibly released by hydrolysis of P-O bonds – non-common compounds – would not influence the prediction of the (eco)toxicological properties because they are considered to have the same biological targets and to cause the same type of effects through a common underlying mechanism due to the same functional groups (zinc cation, phosphorodithioic cation and aliphatic alcohol anionic moieties). The impurities of the target and the source substances are not expected to impact the prediction because they are identical or, if slightly structural different, belong to the same class of compounds with the same functional groups and their percentages are very low.

2. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION (ENDPOINT LEVEL)
Since the main constituents of the target substance are structurally similar to the constituents of the source substances with the same functional groups and the alkyl chain lengths of phosphoroditioate moieties are in the range of the established ZDDP category (C3-C12), the same mode of toxicological action is expected for the target and the source substances. The constituents of the target substance do not possess functional groups associated with other modes of action or toxicity effects. Toxicokinetic behavior of the constituents of the target substance is expected to be essentially the same as that of the source substance. Based on the results of the oral repeated dose toxicity studies with the source substances and other ZDDP category members, it is evident that the structural dissimilarities – the chain lengths of the alkyl rests – did not result in different strength of the toxicity effects. Even if absorption through GI tract of the category members with shorter alkyl rests and theoretically higher absorption rates (due to the increased water solubility and decreased molecular weights favouring absorption) is higher, their intrinsic properties are essentially the same as the findings in the toxicity studies are very similar. The impurities of the target substance are considered not to contribute to the toxicity effects because they are also structurally similar to the impurities of the source substances and consist of substances of simple structure without specific mode of action. Furthermore, their amounts are very low. Therefore, it is predicted that the target substance would possess the same toxicity potential by repeated oral exposure as the source substance.

Data source

Materials and methods

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Test material form:
liquid

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

General toxicity (maternal animals)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes. Remark: portal-of-entry

Details on maternal toxic effects:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
One male in the 160 mg/kg/day group was euthanized in extremis on study day 17; a gross observation of a thickened stomach was noted at necropsy. Clinical findings noted for this male approximately 1 hour following dose administration on the day of euthanasia consisted of yellow material on various body surfaces, clear material around the mouth, unkempt appearance, decreased defecation, and labored respiration. Microscopically, this male was noted with inflammation, edema, and ulceration in the non-glandular stomach, erosion and inflammation in the trachea, and lymphoid depletion in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes (mesenteric, mandibular, and axillary). The lesions in the non glandular stomach were considered test item-related and may have contributed to the moribund state of this male. All other animals in all dosage groups survived to the scheduled necropsies. Test item related clinical findings were noted in the 160 mg/kg/day group males and females and included rales, decreased, shallow, and/or labored respiration and salivation related findings. These findings were noted at the daily examinations, at the time of dosing, and/or approximately 1 hour following dose administration primarily during the treatment period. However, because of their sporadic occurrence, these cardio pulmonary findings were considered to be incidental and secondary to the nature of the test item and the route of administration.

BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Mean body weights, body weight changes, and food consumption were unaffected by test item administration in the 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg/day groups throughout the treatment and post-treatment periods.

FUNCTIONAL OBSERVATIONAL BATTERY (FOB) AND LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No test item-related effects were noted during the FOB or locomotor activity evaluations at any dosage level.

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
There were no test substance-related effects on serum chemistry, hematology, or coagulation parameters in the 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg/day groups.

ORGAN WEIGHTS (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
There were no test item-related alterations in final body weight or organ weights at any dosage level. Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed when the control and high dose group males were compared at the recovery (post-treatment) necropsy and consisted of lower mean kidney weight relative to body weight, higher mean spleen weight relative to brain weight, higher mean left testis weight relative to brain weight, and higher mean right testis weights (absolute and relative to brain weight). There was no case where all 3 measures (absolute, relative to body weight, and relative to brain weight) were statistically significant. Thus, since the absolute weights and weights relative to body or brain weight were discordant, these organ weight changes were considered to be spurious.

GROSS PATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
One male (no. 61739) in the 160 mg/kg/day group was euthanized in extremis on study day 17. The thickened stomach noted macroscopically for this male was related to test item administration. There were no other test item related internal findings observed for either sex at any dosage level at the scheduled necropsies. Macroscopic findings observed in the test item groups occurred infrequently and/or in a manner that was not dose related.

HISTOPATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Test item-related histologic observations of epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation of the non-glandular stomach, typically at the limiting ridge, but sometimes more widespread, were noted in the 160 mg/kg/day group males and females.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Remarks:
portal-of-entry
Effect level:
40 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Remarks on result:
other: localised injury to the nonglandular portion of the stomach
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
systemic toxicity
Effect level:
160 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Remarks on result:
other: no effects observed at any dose level

Maternal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
no effects observed

Results (fetuses)

Effect levels (fetuses)

Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Remarks:
only screening test

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
no effects observed

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
no

Any other information on results incl. tables

VIABILITY (OFFSPRING): Mean numbers of corpora lutea and unaccounted-for sites, mean number of pups born, live litter size, the percentage of males at birth, and postnatal survival in the 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg/day groups were similar to the control group values.

CLINICAL SIGNS (OFFSPRING): The general physical condition of all F1 pups in this study were unaffected by test item administration. No test item-related clinical findings were noted for the F1 pups.

BODY WEIGHT (OFFSPRING): Mean male and female pup body weights and body weight gains in the 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg/day groups were unaffected by test item administration during PND 1-4. No statistically significant differences from the control group were noted.

GROSS PATHOLOGY (OFFSPRING): There were no remarkable macroscopic findings in the F1 pups at the scheduled necropsy at any dosage level.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Test item-related moribundity, clinical findings, and microscopic findings in the non glandular portion of the stomach, characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation, were observed in the 160 mg/kg/day group. The injury to the nonglandular portion of the stomach was localized and considered to be irritation from test item portal-of-entry effects. Based on these results, the NOEL for portal-of-entry effects was considered to be 40 mg/kg/day, and excluding the histologic injury to the nonglandular stomach, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was considered to be 160 mg/kg/day. In the absence of effects on the general physical condition of the F1 pups, the NOEL for neonatal toxicity was 160 mg/kg/day.
Executive summary:

In a guideline repeated dose and reproduction / developmental screening study (OECD 422) conducted according to Good Laboratory Practices, WIL Research Labs (2010) evaluated the potential toxic effects of phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-bis(iso-Bu and pentyl) esters, zinc salts when administered to rats. This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects, including neurobehavioral effects, of the test material to parental animals and to evaluate the potential to effect male and female reproductive performance such as gonadal function, mating behavior, conception, parturition, and early postnatal development. The test material was administered orally by gavage once daily to 3 groups of Crl:CD(SD) rats at levels of 10, 40 or 160 mg/kg/day. The low- and mid-dose groups each consisted of 10 rats/sex and the high-dose group consisted of 15 rats/sex. A concurrent control group of 15 rats/sex received the vehicle, mineral oil USP, on a comparable regimen. Ten males/group selected for pairing were dosed for 14 days prior to mating through 1 day prior to euthanasia for a total of 28 doses. Ten females/group selected for pairing were dosed for 14 days prior to mating through lactation day 3 for a total of 40-52 doses; females that failed to deliver were dosed through the day prior to euthanasia (post-mating day 25) for a total of 40 doses. The extra 5 males and 5 females in the control and high-dose groups were not used for mating and were treated beginning on study day 0; following 28 doses for the males and 40 doses for the females, these animals were assigned to the post‑treatment period and remained on study for a 14-day non-dosing period.

Test item-related moribundity, clinical findings, and microscopic findings in the non glandular portion of the stomach, characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and inflammation, were observed in the 160 mg/kg/day group. The injury to the nonglandular portion of the stomach was localized and considered to be irritation from test item portal-of-entry effects. Based on these results, the NOEL for portal-of-entry effects was considered to be 40 mg/kg/day, and excluding the histologic injury to the nonglandular stomach, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for systemic toxicity was considered to be 160 mg/kg/day. In the absence of effects on the general physical condition of the F1 pups, the NOEL for neonatal toxicity was 160 mg/kg/day.