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Surface tension

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Endpoint:
surface tension
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Standard method used however not conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) straddles Hydrocarbons, C9-C14, Aliphatics, (2-25% Aromatics) and Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, Aliphatics (2-30% Aromatics). Read across justification documents have been provided for the same in Section 13 of the dossier. For this substance, a worst case scenario approach has been used for each endpoint.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Wilhelmy Plate
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Wilhelmy plate method is used to measure the surface tension using a standardized plate with a ring/plate tensiometer. The plate is moved towards the surface until the meniscus connects with it. The surface tension is calculated from the resulting force. Due to uncertain wetting behavior, the plate can only be used for interfaces under certain limitations.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
plate method
Key result
Surface tension:
24.7 mN/m
Temp.:
25 °C
Conc.:
100 vol%
Conclusions:
The measured surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C9-C12, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -25%) is 24.7 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.
Executive summary:

The measured surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C9-C12, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -25%) is 24.7 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.

Endpoint:
surface tension
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Standard method used however not conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) straddles Hydrocarbons, C9-C14, Aliphatics, (2-25% Aromatics) and Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, Aliphatics (2-30% Aromatics). Read across justification documents have been provided for the same in Section 13 of the dossier. For this substance, a worst case scenario approach has been used for each endpoint.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Wilhelmy Plate
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Wilhelmy plate method is used to measure the surface tension using a standardized plate with a ring/plate tensiometer. The plate is moved towards the surface until the meniscus connects with it. The surface tension is calculated from the resulting force. Due to uncertain wetting behavior, the plate can only be used for interfaces under certain limitations.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
plate method
Key result
Surface tension:
25.9 mN/m
Temp.:
25 °C
Conc.:
100 vol%
Conclusions:
The measured surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) is 25.9 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.
Executive summary:

The measured surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) is 25.9 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.

Endpoint:
surface tension
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) straddles Hydrocarbons, C9-C14, Aliphatics, (2-25% Aromatics) and Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, Aliphatics (2-30% Aromatics). Read across justification documents have been provided for the same in Section 13 of the dossier. For this substance, a worst case scenario approach has been used for each endpoint.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Wilhelmy plate method
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Wilhelmy plate method is used to measure the surface tension using a standardized plate with a ring/plate tensiometer. The plate is moved towards the surface until the meniscus connects with it. The surface tension is calculated from the resulting force. Due to uncertain wetting behavior, the plate can only be used for interfaces under certain limitations.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
plate method
Key result
Surface tension:
28.4 mN/m
Temp.:
25 °C
Conc.:
100 vol%
Conclusions:
The surface tension was 28.4 mN/m at 25 deg C using the Wilhelmy plate method.
Executive summary:

The surface tension was 28.4 mN/m at 25 deg C using the Wilhelmy plate method.

Endpoint:
surface tension
Type of information:
other: extrapolated from literature data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2010
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) straddles Hydrocarbons, C9-C14, Aliphatics, (2-25% Aromatics) and Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, Aliphatics (2-30% Aromatics). Read across justification documents have been provided for the same in Section 13 of the dossier. For this substance, a worst case scenario approach has been used for each endpoint.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Extrapolated from published literature.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
plate method
Key result
Surface tension:
29.1 mN/m
Temp.:
25 °C
Conc.:
100 vol%
Conclusions:
The surface tension was 29.1 mN/m at 25 deg C.
Executive summary:

The surface tension was 29.1 mN/m at 25 deg C.

Description of key information

There is no data available for Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, 2-25% aromatics. Data is read across from structural analogues such as Hydrocarbons, C9-C14 aliphatics, 2-25% aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C14-C20 aliphatic, 2-30% aromatics.

Read across justification documents have been provided for the same in Section 13 of the dossier. For this substance, a worst case scenario approach has been used for each endpoint.

 

The surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C9 -C12, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -25%) is between 24 and 27 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.

 

The surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-25%) is between 25 and 27 mN/m using Wilhelmy plate method.

 

The surface tension at 25°C of Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) is 28 to 30 mN/m according to the Wilhelmy plate method.

 

These data are used as read across data for Hydrocarbons, C12-C16, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, 2-25% aromatics.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information