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Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-dodecyl-, cerium(4+) salt consists of cerium cations and benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivate) anions. Based on the solubility of Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-dodecyl-, cerium(4+) salt in water, a complete dissociation resulting in cerium and benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl) ions may be assumed under environmental conditions. Since cerium cations and benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivate) anions behave differently in the environment, including processes such as stability, degradation, transport and distribution, a separate assessment of the environmental fate of each assessment entity is performed. Please refer to the data as submitted for each individual assessment entity. 



Abiotic degradation including hydrolysis or phototransformation in water, soil or air, is not relevant for inorganic substances including cerium ions. In general, (abiotic) degradation is irrelevant for inorganic substances that are assessed on an elemental basis.

Biotic degradation is not relevant for metals and metal compounds. Cerium as an element is not considered to be (bio)degradable.

Transport and distribution: Cerium partitioning is quantified by the log Kp (soil/water) = 3.54; log Kp(sediment/freshwater) = 5.15 and the log Kp (suspended matter/freshwater) = 5.12, rendering it predominantly immobile in the different environmental compartments.

Regarding the aqueous chemistry, cerium can exist in the trivalent cerous oxidation state (Ce3+) and the tetravalent ceric state (Ce4+) and depending on the environmental conditions can cycle between both oxidation states. However, the thermodynamic stability of cerium species indicates that aqueous cerous (Ce3 +) ions and oxides/hydroxides are the predominating species at most environmentally relevant conditions (El-Akl et al., 2015). Studies also point to Ce(III) species being the main driver of the environmental toxicity of cerium (Dahle and Arai, 2015; Pulido-Reyes et al., 2015; Yu et al. 2006).

benzenesulfonic acid, 4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivatives

Biotic degradation: 4-undecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS 68411-30-3), a structural analog of benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivate) is readily biodegradable. Based on the biodegradation in water, biodegradation in soil and sediment is also expected.

Bioaccumulation: Benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivate) has a low potential for bioaccumulation (logPow = 2.2).

Transport and distribution: According to predictions of the Level III fugacity model of EPI Suite (v4.11) for the partitioning between air, soil, sediment and water in an evaluative environment assuming steady-state but not equilibrium conditions, Benzenesulfonic acid (4-C10-13-sec-alkyl derivate) will preferentially partition into soil and water and has a low potential for volatilisation.

Dahle & Arai (2015) Environmental geochemistry of cerium: Applications and toxicology of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12: 1253-1278.

ElAkl (2015) Linking the chemical speciation of cerium to its bioavailability in water for a freshwater alga. ECT 34/8: 1711-1719.

Pulido-Reyes et al. (2015) Untangling the biological effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles: the role of surface valence states. Sci. Rep. 5:15613.

Yu et al. (2006) The phase stability of cerium species in aqueous systems. II. The Ce(III/IV)–H2O–H2O2/O2 systems. Equilibrium considerations and pourbaix diagram calculations.J. Electrochem. Society 153/1: C74-C79.

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