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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Study initiation date: May 9, 2008. Observation: June 28, 2008
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: guideline study on Gas-to-liquids (GTL) substance covering the carbon range from C18 to C50
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Based on the solubility of the test substance, the WAF (Water Accommodated Fraction) was formulated for test concentrations.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations:
The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in the samples of test solutions.

- Sampling method:
10 ml samples of test media were taken from the control and test material vessels at the end beginning and the end of the first and the third 24 hours of the 96-hours period.

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method:
Preliminary test:
The preliminary test was conducted with the limit test concentration of 1000 mg/l as WAF (nominal concentration). A concurrent water control group was performed in parallel.
Based on the solubility of the test substance, the WAF (Water Accommodated Fraction) was formulated for test concentrations by combining the test material and dilution water on weight to volume basis.

Definitive test:
According to the results of the preliminary test, the definitive test was conducted with the limit test concentration of 1000 mg/L as WAF (nominal concentration). A concurrent water control group was performed in parallel.

Test concentration preparation:
The WAF (Water Accommodated Fractions) was formulated for the test concentration by combining the test material and dilution water on a weight to volume basis. The test material/dilution water combinations, contained in 10 liter jars (diameter: 22cm, height: 40 cm), were stirred at 23 ± 2°C for 24 hours with a magnetic force stirrer at 300 rpm and a vortex was formed which represented a slight dimple at the water surface. Following the mixing period, the formulation was allowed to settle for 2 hours and then the water phases containing the WAF were removed by mid-depth siphoning.
A wide bore glass tube covered at one end with parafilm was submerged into the mixing vessel, sealed end down, to a depth about 5 cm from the bottom of the container. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the parafilm seal. Then, a small amount of the WAF was removed and checked microscopically; micro-dispersions were not detected. The WAF was removed by siphon, the first 75-100 ml of aqueous phases being discarded. Insoluble materials were not taken up during siphoning. The aqueous phase or WAF were collected and used for the toxicity test.

Exposure concentration and grouping:
The concentration of 1000 mg/l as WAF was selected. Accurately weighed 10 g of test substance was put into 10 liters of test water. Stirring only
commenced after all the test material had been added. During the first hour, the mixing rate was checked periodically to ensure the prescribed vortex height was maintained. The vortex formation was periodically re-checked throughout the test duration.
WAF was prepared approximately 26 hours prior to the start of the test and each test media renewal period, and then split to the test vessel. Group of ten zebra fish were exposed to the test media. At intervals of 24 hours (24, 48 and 72 hours) the fish were transferred to tanks containing freshly prepared test media.
















Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Zebra fish
- Strain: Brachydanio rerio
- Source: Qianmin Fishery of Yuhong District in Shenyang
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Juvenile
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 2-3 cm
- Feeding during test: daily until 24 hours before the test was started.


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Fish were held in the laboratory for 12 days to acclimatize to the test conditions.
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Fish were held in water of the quality to be used in the test and under the following conditions:
Light: natural photoperiod, 12-16 hours
Temperature: 23 ± 2°C
Oxygen concentration: at least 80% of ASV
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): There was no death or any sign of disease during the acclimatization period.

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
The fish were were observed for toxic signs and deaths at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after initial exposure. The criterion for death was no opercula movement during a 15 second period of observation.
Hardness:
250 ± 25 mg/l as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
22.4 - 23.7°C

pH:
7.94 - 8.16
Dissolved oxygen:
7.7 - 8.8 mg/l
Salinity:
Ca/Mg was approximately 4:1.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The definitive test was conducted with the limit concentration of 1000 mg/L as WAF (nominal concentration).
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: glass tanks (30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm) filled with about 9L test media.
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): Renewal of test solutions every 24 hours.
- No. of organisms per vessel:10.
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water:
The dilution water used was reconstituted water (ISO 6341-1982)
(a) Calcium chloride solution: Dissolve 147.00 g CaCl2.2H2O in deionised water; make up to 5 litres with deionised water.
(b) Magnesium sulphate solution: Dissolve 61.625 g MgSO4.7H2O in deionised water; make up to 5 lites with deionised water.
(c) Sodium bicarbonate solution: Dissolve 32.375 g NaHCO3 in deionised water; make up to 5 litres with deionised water.
(d) Potassium chloride solution: Dissolve 2.875 g KCl in deionised water; make up to 5 litres withdeionised water.

One liter each of solutions (a) to (d) was mixed and the total volume was made up to 100 liters with deionised water. The dilution water was then aerated until oxygen saturation was achieved, and it was then stored for about two days without further aeration before use. The pH was 7.8±0.2, hardness was about 250+25 mg/l (as CaC03), Ca/Mg was about 4: 1.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Natural light, 12-16 hours.
-Oxygen concentration: Not less than 60% of ASV during the test period.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
The fish were observed daily. The abnormality and deaths were recorded at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exposure. The criterion for death was no opercula movement during a 15 second period of observation.

Physicochemical Measurements:
The pH value, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured at the beginning of the test and 24-hour intervals during the 96-hour exposure period in both control and test media. The total water hardness and alkalinity were measured at the beginning of the test.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Based on the results of a preliminary test at 1000 mg/l WAF, where the fish treated with the test media showed no abnormalities or deaths during the test period.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: Determined test concentration was 0.09 mg/l as TOC.
Details on results:
Physicochemical measurements:
The determined results of pH value, dissolved oxygen and temperature were 7.94-8.16, 7.7-8.8mg/L and 22.4-23.TC, respectively. The allowed range of the pH value is 6.0-8.5, the temperature is 21-25°C, and dissolved oxygen is at least 60 percent of the air saturation value throughout the test.

Toxic signs:
There was no significant difference between the control and the test group.
The fish treated with the test media showed no abnormalities or deaths during the test period.

Verification of Test Concentrations:
The results showed that there was no significant difference between the control and test material samples (due to the poorly water solubility of the test substance), and there was no significant difference between fresh and the expired solutions. Because the test substance was added to the test water at 1000 mg/L, the test concentration expressed with TOC was 0.09 mg/L (i.e mean of TOC 1000 mg/l - TOC ck).

Approximate LL50:
According to the results of the test, the determined test concentration was 0.09 mg/L as TOC, and the 96-hours LLso to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was greater than 1000 mg/L as WAF (0.09 mg/L as TOC).






Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable.
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Cumulative Mortality:

Nominal concentration (mg/l)

Initial population

Time (hr)

Cumulative mortality

Abnormalities

Control

10

3

0

No observed toxic signs

6

0

24

0

48

0

72

0

96

0

1000

10

3

0

No observed toxic signs

6

0

24

0

48

0

72

0

96

0

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
According to the results of the test, the determined test concentration was 0.09 mg/L as TOC, and the 96-hours LLso to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was greater than 1000 mg/L as WAF (0.09 mg/L as TOC).
Executive summary:

Introduction.

An acute toxicity study of 'Distillates (Fischer - Tropsch), heavy, C18 -50 - branched, cyclic and linear' was conducted with the freshwater to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio).

Methods.

Based on the results of the preliminary test, a definitive test was conducted using a limit test concentration of l000 mg/L as WAF (nominal concentration). Groups of ten zebra fish were exposed to the test media. A concurrent water control group was performed in parallel. The test was performed with a semi-static water renewal system. The pH value, dissolved oxygen and temperature were determined at the beginning of the test and at 24-hour intervals during the 96-hours exposure period. Water hardness and total alkalinity were measured at the beginning of the test in the control tank. The fish were observed daily. The abnormalities or deaths were recorded at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exposure. During the 96-hours exposure period, no abnormalities or deaths were observed in either the control or exposure fish.

Samples of test media were taken from the control and test material vessel at the beginning and the end of the first and the third 24 hours of the 96-hours period, concentrations of total organic carbon (TOe) were determined in the samples.

Results.

The results showed that there was no significant difference between the control and test material samples (due to the poorly water solubility of the test substance), and there was no significant difference between fresh and the expired solutions. Because the test

substance was added to the test water at 1000 mg/L, the test concentration expressed with TOC was 0.09 mg/L (i.e. mean of TOC 1000 mg/L - TOCck).

According to the results of the test, the determined test concentration was 0.09 mg/L as TOC, and the 96-hours LLso to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) was greater than 1000 mg/L as WAF (0.09 mg/L as TOC).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: guideline study on Gas-to-liquids (GTL) substance covering the carbon range from C8 to C26, without GLP and analytics but acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION:
Water accommodated fractions (WAF’s) were prepared in sealed vessels with a small headspace according to the CONCAWE methodology for the
ecotoxicological testing of petroleum products (CONCAWE report, 1993). WAF’s were prepared using 1L reconstituted water (ISO 6341-1982). The
required amount of test substance was weighed on microscope glass cover slips and added to 1L media. The vessels were sealed and vigorously
shaken (200 rpm’s) for 24 hours on an orbital shaker. The mixtures were poured into separation funnels and left for two hours to separate. The
water fractions were transferred to vessels and used in the test.
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: water accommodated fraction
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Table 1:

Acute toxicity of Diesel fuel to Brachydanio rerio 

 

Diesel Fuel

NOEL (mg/L)

Test material

>1000

FCC simulated crude derived refinery

>1000

Test material + FCC

 >1000

DHC simulated crude derived refinery

>1000

Test material + DHC

>1000

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The fish toxicity test indicated that the test substance induced no adverse effects in the fish, B. rerio at the concentrations tested. The No Observed
Effect Level (NOEL) of all samples tested was greater than 1000 mg/L (nominal, water accommodated fraction).
Executive summary:

Results have been reported for an acute toxicity test carried out on a sample of the substance 'Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), C8-26 - branched and linear' with the fish Brachydanio rerio (Zebrafish). The test was conducted in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 203. The test media were WAFs of the test sample that were prepared in sealed vessels with a small headspace according to the CONCAWE methodology for the ecotoxicological testing of petroleum products (CONCAWE report, 1993).

The test result, expressed as the LL50value, showed that the sample was not acutely toxic to fish at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. The No Observed Effect Level (NOEL) of all samples tested was greater than 1000 mg/L (nominal, water accommodated fraction).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
no data
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: guideline study on Gas-to-liquids (GTL) substance covering the carbon range from C8 to C26, without GLP and analytics but acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.1 (Acute Toxicity for Fish)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
, see "Principles of method if other than guideline"
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
, see "Principles of method if other than guideline"
Principles of method if other than guideline:
For periods of time during the study the temperature was below the OECD and EC guidelines (20 - 24°C): 38 hourly temperature readings were outside the guidelines; the minimum temperature was 17.6°C.
Furthermore a reliable analytical method for the quantification of the substance in the test solutions was not available.
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
not applicable, since neither a surrogate nor an analogue material was used in the test
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
chemical analysis was not carried out
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: water accommodated fraction (WAF) methodology was used for production of test media. In each test, measured amounts of the test sample were added to measured volumes of test medium. Since the test samples contain components of low to moderate volatility, vessels containing the medium and test sample were sealed, leaving only a small headspace, and the contents stirred at 150 rpm for approximately 72 hours (+/- 2 hours). After stirring, the contents of the vessels were left to settle (1-2 hours) to allow the undissolved material to separate out. The aqueous phases - the WAFs - were then drawn off for use in the tests. All test media were stored in sealed containers with minimum headspace.
- Control: control media were subject to the same regime but did not contain the test sample
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Fathead minnow
- Strain: Cyprinids
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile fish - age unknown
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): information not available
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): information not available
- Method of breeding: The fish are reared in 40 L, glass tanks at a density appropriate to their size. The tanks received a continuous flow of temperature-controlled water, nominally 20-24°C, of a suitable and defined quality. Fish mortalities and dissolved oxygen concentration in the tanks are recorded daily. The fish are kept under artificial light with a 16 h light 8 h dark cycle. The fish are deemed acceptable for testing if the cumulative mortality in the batch is less than 5% over a 7-day period preceding the test.
- Feeding during test
- Food type: The fry were initially fed a diet of newly hatched live brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) but as they grew and developed into juvenile fish the diet was changed to predominantly frozen adult brine shrimp.
- Amount: The quantities fed depending upon the size of the fish.
- Frequency: information not available

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: for a minimum of 12 days before a test begins
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): fish are acclimated to the test conditions
- Type and amount of food: see above "TEST ORGANISM - Feeding during test"
- Feeding frequency: fish are not fed in the 24-hour period preceding a test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): fish are deemed acceptable for testing if the cumulative mortality in the batch is less than 5%
over a 7-day period preceding the test
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
138 -143 mg/L as CaCO3 [the total hardness was determined in each batch of fresh control medium]
Test temperature:
17.6 – 21.1°C [examined hourly; 38 hourly temperature readings outside OECD and EC guidelines (20 - 24°C)]
pH:
8.3-8.6 [the pH of the fresh media at t0, t24, t48 and t72 and the old media at t24, t48, t72 and t96 were determined]
Dissolved oxygen:
6.6-8.4 mg/L [the dissolved oxygen concentration of the fresh media at t0, t24, t48 and t72 and the old media at t24, t48, t72 and t96 were determined]
Salinity:
information not available
Nominal and measured concentrations:
- Nominal concentration: 1000 mg/L
- Measured concentration: analysis was not carried out
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: closed
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 17L-glass bottle, 17L, headspace: minimum
- Aeration: not applicable (sealed vessels)
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure 90% of the volume of the test solutions were replaced with freshly prepared test media
- No. of organisms per vessel: 7
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 1


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The water used for maintenance of stocks and for toxicity tests with P. promelas is the laboratory mains tap water supply. The water is not chlorinated but undergoes treatment before entering the building. This includes partial softening by ion exchange (Steetly water softener) followed by filtration through a twin bed active-carbon filter (Permutit PCF 350A) to remove organic contaminants. The carbon filter is back-washed every 24 hours to remove any suspended particles that become trapped. On entering the testing facility the water passes through a stainless steel simplex filter to remove any large particulates. The water then undergoes further carbon filtration (Filtromat), these carbon filters are also back-washed. Prior to entering the laboratory the water is filtered through a Balston Liquid Filter (10 µm). The particle filter is inspected monthly. The activated carbon filter cartridges and Balston LP Filter cartridges are renewed as recommended by the manufacturers. Heat exchange units (stainless steel and perspex) are used to adjust water temperature.
- Total organic carbon: not available
- Particulate matter: not available
- Metals: not available
- Pesticides: not available
- Chlorine: ≤0.02 mg/L [the residual chlorine concentrations were determined in each batch of fresh control medium]
- Alkalinity: not available
- Ca/mg ratio: not available
- Conductivity: not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: approximately six monthly intervals (water quality parameters were within the preferred ranges)


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not necessary
- Photoperiod: artificial light with a 16 h light and 8 h dark cycle
- Light intensity: not available


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h):
- Number of fish exhibiting no toxic symptoms: 7/7 (at all observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h)
- Number of fish swimming normally but exhibiting toxic symptoms e.g. increased cough frequency, hyperventilation, colour change: 0/7 (at all observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h)
- Number of fish swimming abnormally e.g. on side or back: 0/7 (at all observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h)
- Number of fish immobilised e.g. lying on bottom of tank or floating at surface, but still alive: 0/7 (at all observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h)
- Number of fish dead: 0/7 (at all observation intervals: 3, 24, 48, 72 and 96h)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: not applicable
- Range finding study
- Test concentrations: 1000 mg/L WAF (water accommodated fractions) of test substance
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: the range finding test indicated an LL50 value exceeding 1000 mg/L, the maximum loading rate tested
Reference substance (positive control):
not required
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Water-accommodated fraction
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Water-accommodated fraction
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Water-accommodated fraction
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
> 1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Water-accommodated fraction
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: Water-accommodated fraction
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: none
- Observations on body length and weight: not available
- Other biological observations: none
- Mortality of control: 0
- Other adverse effects control: none
- Abnormal responses: none
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: not applicable
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: yes - water solubility less than 1 mg/L at 20.0 ± 0.5 °C
Results with reference substance (positive control):
not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
information not available
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

Toxic symptoms exhibited by P. promelas during the study:

 

 

Observation time and symptom classification*

Loading rate of Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), C8-26- branched and linear

No. of

3 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

(mg/L)

fish

a

b

c

d

e

a

b

c

d

e

a

b

c

d

e

a

b

c

d

e

a

b

c

d

e

Control

7

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

1000

7

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

* Symptom classification

(a) Number of fish exhibiting no toxic symptoms
(b) Number of fish swimming normally but exhibiting toxic symptoms e.g. increased cough frequency,
hyperventilation, colour change
(c) Number of fish swimming abnormally e.g. on side or back
(d) Number of fish immobilised e.g. lying on bottom of tank or floating at surface, but still alive
(e) Number of fish dead.

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 24, 48, 72 and 96h LL50 values were all >1000 mg/L (nominal, water accommodated fraction). The 96h NOELR for mortality was 1000 mg/L (nominal, water accommodated fraction)
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of a sample of 'Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), C8 -26 - branched and linear' has been determined in a test with the fish Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow). The test was conducted in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 203.

Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the sample were prepared in sealed vessels with minimum headspace, by stirring for approximately 72 hours. The contents of the vessels were left to stand for 1-2 hours before drawing off the aqueous phase – the WAF – for testing. Semi-static exposures were then carried out in completely full, sealed vessels. The tests were not subject to GLP and the test media were not analysed for stability or for exposure concentration. However in other respects they were considered to fulfil the requirements of current best practice.

The test results, expressed as the LL50value, showed that the sample was not acutely toxic to fish at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L (nominal). The 96h NOELR for mortality was 1000 mg/L (nominal).

Description of key information

- (96h) LL50 for freshwater fish (Brachydanio rerio): >1000 mg/l  [OECD 203; test mat. Distillates (Fischer–Tropsch), heavy, C18–C50 branched, cyclic and linear (WAFs) (nominal) based on: mortality];

- (96h) LL50 for freshwater fish (Pimephales promelas): >1000 mg/l  [OECD 203; test mat. Distillates (Fischer–Tropsch), C8–C26 branched and linear (WAFs) (nominal) based on: mortality];

- (96h) LL50 for freshwater fish (Brachydanio rerio): >1000 mg/l  [OECD 203; test mat. Distillates (Fischer–Tropsch), C8–C26 branched and linear (WAFs) (nominal) based on: mortality].

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
1 000 mg/L

Additional information

Measured acute (short-term) toxicity data are not available for 'Paraffin waxes (Fischer-Tropsch), full-range, C15-50 - branched and linear':

The short-term toxicity of the supporting substance GTL Base Oil Distillates (covering the carbon range from C18 to C50) to freshwater fish Brachydanio rerio (zebra fish) has been determined by Han (2008). The test was conducted in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 203.

Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the sample were prepared in jars, by stirring for approximately 24 hours. The contents of the vessels were left to stand for 2 hours before drawing off the aqueous phase – the WAF – for testing. Semi-static exposures were then carried out.

The test was conducted in accordance with GLP and the TOC of test media were analysed for stability and exposure concentration. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis of the freshly prepared test preparations showed amount of carbon present within the 1000 mg/l loading rate WAF test vessels to range from 1.71 mg C/l to 1.79 mg C/l. TOC analysis of the old test media showed amount of carbon present to range from 1.56 mg C/l to 1.64 mg C/l. There was no significant difference in TOC content between control and exposure vessels. This was expected by the authors due to the low water solubility of the test substance. 

The test results, expressed as the LL50value, showed that GTL Base Oil Distillates was not hazardous to fish at a loading rate of 1000 mg/l WAFs.

The acute toxicity of the supporting substance GTL Gasoil (covering the carbon range from C8 to C26) was determined by Palmer (2002) in a test with the fish Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow). The test was conducted in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 203.

Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the sample were prepared in sealed vessels with minimum headspace, by stirring for approximately 72 hours. The contents of the vessels were left to stand for 1-2 hours before drawing off the aqueous phase – the WAF – for testing. Semi-static exposures were then carried out in completely full, sealed vessels. The tests were not subject to GLP and the test media were not analysed for stability or for exposure concentration of the test substance. However in other respects they were considered to fulfil the requirements of current best practice.

The test results, expressed as the LL50 value, showed that the sample was not acutely toxic to fish at a loading rate of 1000 mg/l.

Albertus and Phillips (2005) have reported results for an acute toxicity test carried out on a sample of the substance SASOL SPD™ Diesel (covering the carbon range from C8 to C26) with the fish Brachydanio rerio (Zebrafish).The test was conducted in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 201. The test media were WAFs of the test sample that were prepared in sealed vessels with a small headspace according to the CONCAWE methodology for the ecotoxicological testing of petroleum products (CONCAWE report, 1993).

The test results, expressed as the LL50 value, showed that the sample was not acutely toxic to fish at a loading rate of 1000 mg/l.

Conclusion:

Short-term fish toxicity tests are available for two substances in the relevant carbon number range for 'Paraffin waxes (Fischer-Tropsch), full-range, C15-50 - branched and linear'.

In the absence of adverse effects in these studies it can be concluded that, based on weight of evidence, the LLR50 (freshwater fish) for 'Paraffin waxes (Fischer-Tropsch), full range, C15-C50, branched and linear' is >1000 mg/l.

The acute toxicity to fish is considered to be no effects at the water solubility limit (saturation).