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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Toxicokinetics of the registered substance is based on the properties of the constituents.

Nitric acid is only bioavailable in the form of nitrates due to immediate disintegration in physiological media. Nitrates are well absorbed and excreted mainly via urine.

Citric acid is of low relevance for the toxicokinetic assessment.



The amount of tin absorbed into the bloodstram depends on the solubility of the compound as well as the oxidation state of the tin entity. Tin(II) compounds are more readily absorbed than tin(IV) compounds. However, overall tin absorption via the GI tract is low [WHO 1980]. In a toxicokinetics study, rats were given radiolabelled Sn(II) or Sn(IV) in the form of citrate or fluoride in a dose of 20 mg/kg bw. Absorption was estimated to be 2.85% for Sn(II) and 0.64% for Sn(IV) [WHO 1980].

No information is available on tin absorption following dermal or inhalation exposure.


"Inorganic tin distributes mainly to bone, but also to the lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, tongue, and skin. [...] Following a single gavage dose of 20 mg/kg body weight of radiolabelled 113Sn(II) or 113Sn(IV) as the fluoride or citrate, the tissue distribution of tin in rats after 48 h as a percentage of the administered tin(II) or tin(IV), respectively, was as follows: skeleton, 1.0% and 0.24%; liver, 0.08% and 0.02%; and kidneys, 0.09% and 0.02%. When oral tin doses of 20 mg/kg body weight were given on 6 days/week for 4 weeks, only the bone contained higher tin concentrations after day 28 than after day 1. The half-time of tin in the femur was estimated to be 34–40 days. The investigator concluded that, of the soft tissues, only liver and kidneys are likely to accumulate significant amounts of tin as a result of the oral ingestion of tin salts. No 113Sn was found in the brain of rats 48 h following administration of 113Sn(II) or 113Sn(IV) as citrate or fluoride as a single oral dose (4 mg), as oral doses of 20 mg/kg body weight on 6 days/week for 4 weeks, or as a single intravenous dose (0.4 mg)" [WHO 1980].


The majority of ingested tin is not absorbed and excreted via the feces, while the absorbed fraction is excreted via urine. Especially tin(IV) compounds are hardly found in the bile, thus being almost exclusively excreted via the urine.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information