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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

eye irritation: in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Oct 05 - Oct 19, 1993
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study was conducted according to Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) and followed the OECD guideline for testing of Chemicals 405.

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 405 (Acute Eye Irritation / Corrosion)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Test material form:
other: amorphe mass

Test animals / tissue source

New Zealand White
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
Strain: Rabbit, IVA:NZW, males (m) and females (f)
Source: SAVO-Ivanovas, Kisslegg
Age: about 36 weeks
Initial Weight: 4.15 (3.86 - 4.34) kg
Total Number of Animals: 3 (2m, 1 f)

Test system

unchanged (no vehicle)
not required
Amount / concentration applied:
0,1 g
Observation period (in vivo):
1 hour after treatment, after 24, 48, and 72 hours, then daily up to day 5 of the experimental part.
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
2m, 1f
Details on study design:
-- Identification and adaptation
Healthy young rabbits were allocated to the different groups.The animals were kept in the experimental room for more than 7 days to allow for acclimatization.

-- Assignment
2 male and 1 female rabbit were assigned for this study.

-- Housing and diet
All rabbits were housed in an air-conditioned room of 39 m2 in the rabbit experimental station with daylight. They were kept separately in cages type KK 017 (floor area: 75 x 54.5 = 4087 cm2 , height: 38 cm; manufacturer: Hulskamp) on metal grids. The paper underneath the cages was changed three times a week. The cages were machine­ cleaned before the start of the studies.

Temperature and humidity were measured using a thermo­ hygrograph (type 252, Wilhelm Lambrecht KG, Göttingen).
The room temperature varied from 19 to 21°C and the humidity from 33 to 57 %.

The rabbits received Altromin Standard Diet TPF(R) 2113, pellets and acidified, fully demineralized water from an automatic drinking device ad libitum.

The diet is checked periodically by an independent and German Government approved testing laboratory, according to the regulations of the manufacturer. Analysis includes both qualitative and quantitative evaluation for heavy metals, aflatoxins, pesticides, and antibiotics.

-- Preparation
Before the application, the test material was ground in a mortar using a pestle.

–- Administration and dose level
To ensure that only rabbits with normal eyes were included in the study, approximately 24 hours before treatment ophthalmological examinations were performed after instillation of a 0.15 % fluorescein solution (Dr. Thilo & Co.) using an ophthalmoscope according to Eisenhut (Basel). Animals with eye defects, injury or irritation were excluded.
0.1 g test material was instilled into the conjunctival sac of the left eye of each animal by gently pulling the lower lid away from the eyeball to form a cup into which the test material was placed. The right eye remained untreated and served as control. After instillation, the eyelids were closed for about 30 seconds. Rinsing of the eyes was not performed.

-- Observation for clinical symptoms
The rabbits were investigated for eye irritation and for changes in behavior and general condition 1 hour after treatment, and then after 24, 48, 72 hours and so on for a period of further 4 days.
All rabbits were weighed before the start of the study and on days 5 and 8.
Local changes of the eye were evaluated according to the recommendations of the OECD (see below). The classification followed the Appendix VI of the EEC Directive 79/831.

-- Evaluation of eye reactions
- Cornea Scores
A) Opacity-degree of density (area most dense taken for reading)

No ulceration or opacity 0

Scattered or diffuse areas of opacity (other than slight dulling
of normal lustre), details of iris clearly visible 1
Easily discernible translucent area, details of iris slightly obscured 2
Nacrous area, no details of iris visible, size of pupil barely
discernible 3
Opaque cornea, iris not discernible through the opacity 4

B) Area of cornea involved not evaluated (Rating according to the DRAIZE method)

- Iris
A) Normal 0
Markedly deepened rugae, congestion, swelling, moderate
circumcorneal hyperemia, or injection, any of these or combination
of any thereof, iris still reacting to light
(sluggish reaction is positive) 1
No reaction to light, hemorrhage, gross destruction
(any or all of these) 2

- Conjunctivae Scores
A) Redness (refers to palpebral and bulbar conjunctivae,
cornea and iris)
Blood vessels normal 0
Some blood vessels definitely hyperemic (injected) 1
Diffuse, crimson color, individual vessels not easily discernible 2
Diffuse beefy red 3

B) Chemosis: lids and/or nictating membranes
No swelling 0
Any swelling above normal (includes nictating membranes) 1
Obvious swelling with partial eversion of lids 2
Swelling with lids about half closed 3
Swelling with lids more than half closed 4

C) Discharge (Rating according to the DRAIZE method )
No discharge 0
Any amount different from normal (does not include small
amounts observed in inner canthus of normal animals) 1
Discharge with moistening of the lids and hairs just adjacent to lids 2
Discharge with moistening of the lids and hairs,
and of a considerable area around the eye 3

Mean score of all animals = Mean grading for irritations of cornea, iris, and conjunctivae per time point
Mean score per animal = Mean grading for each animal of irritations of cornea, iris, and conjunctivae (1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after application)
Maximum value = Maximum grading of a sign of irritation within a period

Results and discussion

In vivo

Resultsopen allclose all
Irritation parameter:
iris score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Max. score:
fully reversible
Irritation parameter:
cornea opacity score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Max. score:
fully reversible
Irritation parameter:
conjunctivae score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Max. score:
fully reversible
Irritation parameter:
chemosis score
Time point:
24/48/72 h
Max. score:
fully reversible

Any other information on results incl. tables

All animals survived the observation period. Body weight development of the treated rabbits was inconspicuous.

No signs of clinical toxicity were detected. No signs of irritation were observed at the cornea or iris. All animals showed redness (score 1) and discharge (score 1) one hour after instillation of the test material. No abnormalities were detected in the untreated eyes.

Eve irritation of all animals (mean score):

  24 h  48 h  72 h 
Cornea (mean /max) 0/0 0/0 0/0
 Iris (mean / max) 0/0 0/0 0/0
 Conjunctivae (mean / max) 0/0 0/0 0/0

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
not irritating
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: OECD GHS
No eye irritating potential could be detected, thus the test material should not be classified as eye irritant according to EU Regulation No. 1272/2008 (CLP).
Executive summary:


The purpose of this primary eye irritation assay was to provide information on possible health hazards in case of acute eye contact with a test material and serve as a rational basis for risk assessment to the eye irritating potential of the test item in man.

Study Design

To test for eye irritation a test according to the OECD-Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 405, the annex to Directive 79/8319 EEC, and the recommendations of DRAIZE (1959) was performed.


No signs of irritation were observed at the cornea or iris. In one animal the conjunctivae showed redness (score 1) at the first reading. Later on, no signs of irritation were seen. Thereafter no signs of irritation were observed. The untreated eyes were unchanged.


No eye irritating potential could be detected, thus the test material should not be classified as eye irritant according to EU Regulation No. 1272/2008 (CLP).