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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13 th Edition, USA
Version / remarks:
1971
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: at start of each static bioassay, stock solutions of the chemicals to be tested were prepared using distilled water. These solutions were added into the test containers, and mixed with the diluent water.
- Controls: Yes
Test organisms (species):
Pimephales promelas
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Carp
- Strain: Pimephales promelas
- Source: Muskie Hatchery, Asbury, New Jersey, USA

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: at least of two weeks duration, or longer if the observed mortality rate violated the recommended criterion of less than 5 percent of the standing population within four days preceding the actual bioassay.
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): not: The fish were transferred to a series of five 50-gallon glass aquaria, which served as holding tanks during acclimation.
- Type and amount of food during acclimation: During the acclimation period, the fish received a daily diet of TetraMin staple food.
- Feeding frequency during acclimation: Feeding was suspended 2 days prior to each experiment
- Health during acclimation: all fish showing signs of disease or obvious suppressed activity were removed from the acclimation tanks and excluded from testing; health of the fish was observed and recorded daily

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
pH:
7.0-7.5
Dissolved oxygen:
A minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 4 mg/l was presumed acceptable for a valid experiment; at no time during the program did the dissolved oxygen fall below this level.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 2.0, 3.6, 6.4, 11.2 and 20 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50-gallon glass aquaria; 10 or 12 L volume, one vessel per concentration
- Aeration: Three Metaframe Model 118 "Bubble up" filter aerators. Each aerator consisted of a chamber containing activated charcoal and cotton. A source of oil-free compressed air was supplied to each unit. In addition to providing continuous aeration, these filter-aerators also served as a substrate for biological growths, needed for the decomposition of fish waste products. A minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of 4 mg/l was acceptable; at no time the dissolved oxygen did fall below this level.
- No. of organisms per vessel: 15 test fish in total
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): Same number of fish as an individual test unit (15 test fish)

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Local tap water supplied by the Hackensack Water Company from the New Milford, New Jersey, USA, purification plant
- Purification: The tap water was pretreated by passage through a carbon filter, followed by 48-hour diffused aeration to assure removal of residual chlorine. The efficiency of this procedure was verified periodically throughout the study by residual chlorine analysis which used the orthotolidine colorimetric method.
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Daily monitoring for pH and dissolved oxygen was practiced.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Yes

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: A daily record included the results of visual inspection, observed mortalities, and analysis for pH and dissolved oxygen. Dead and moribund fish were removed from the test containers, and their numbers recorded on a daily basis

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.78
Range finding study: No range-finding test was performed
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

Table 1: Results of fish study

Conc

Cumulative mortalities after [h]

Mortality [%]

[mg/L]

24

48

72

96

 

Control

0

0

0

0

0

2.0

0

0

0

0

0

3.6

0

0

0

0

0

6.4

5

8

8

8

53

11.2

15

15

15

15

100

20.0

15

15

15

15

100

Description of key information

LC50 (96 h) = 6.4 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
6.4 mg/L

Additional information

One study is available on the short-term toxicity of the test item to fish (National Association of Photographic Manufacturers, 1977). The study was performed without analytical monitoring of the test item concentration with the freshwater species (Pimephales promelas) in a static test design. Juvenile carp were exposed to 0, 2.0, 3.6, 6.4, 11.2 and 20 mg/L of the test substance for a 96 h period. The LC50 (96 h) of the test item was determined to be 6.4 mg/L.