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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Reference
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2002-03-28 to 2002-04-25
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Test Method Relating to New Chemical Substances (1974, amended 1998)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 305 (Bioconcentration: Flow-through Fish Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Sampling intervals/frequency for test organisms: 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days

- Sampling intervals/frequency for test medium samples:0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days

- Details on sampling and analysis of test organisms and test media samples (e.g. sample preparation, analytical methods):
- Four fish were taken from each concentration level and analysed two by two. Two fish are weighed, cut into pieces, and homogenised to a slurry. 15ml Acetonitrile, 5ml purified water and 0.2 ml of triethylamine were added to 1g of slurry. The solution was homogenised, centrifuged adn the top layer collected and diluted to 50ml and then further diluted 20-fold with purified water. The solution was analysed by HPLC.
- The test media at high concentration was diluted ten-fold with purified water, then analysed by HPLC. The test media at low concentration was directly analysed by HPLC.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Test substance dissolved in 2000ml purified water (High concentration level feed: 40000mg/l, low concentration feed: 4000mg/l). Each of feed solutions was supplied to a mixing glass tube by a metering pump, and diluted to their respective nominal concentrations by mixing with dilutionwater delivered by another type of metering pump, then poured into each test chamber.

Test organisms (species):
Cyprinus carpio
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Carp

- Source: Sankyo Suisan Co., 1-1, Ichigayatamachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Lot #: 01-K-1112

- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Less than a year after hatching

- Length at study initiation (lenght definition, mean, range and SD): 8±4 cm

- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): About 5 g

- Health status: Preacclimation: When the lot of fish was received, visual observation was made and abnormal fish were removed. The remaining fish were then reared in anaquariumwithwater flowing through. During the acclimation period, fish were kept without receiving medicine in the aquarium.

- Description of housing/holding area: aquarium

- Feeding during test: 200ml/day

ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: ≥2 weeks

- Type and amount of food: Babygold® from Kyorin, The food was given in an amount of 2% of the fish weight.

- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Mortality during the 1 week before testing: (5%
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
flow-through
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
28 d
Test temperature:
24±2°C
pH:
6.0-8.5
Dissolved oxygen:
260% of the saturation (25 mg/L at 240C)
Details on test conditions:
TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS

- Intervals of test medium replacement: feed solutions were renewed after about 8 days.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Light intensity: About 16 hr/day (Hf fluorescent lamp with wavelengths of 400-700 nm)
Conc. / dose:
18.8 mg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
< 10 dimensionless
Calculation basis:
steady state
Conc. / dose:
2.03 mg/L
Type:
BCF
Value:
< 94 dimensionless
Calculation basis:
steady state
Details on results:
- Mortality of test organisms: <10%

- Behavioural abnormalities: There was no abnormality in shape of the body or in swimming and feeding behavior during the period of the test.

Table 1: Concentration of the test substance in the test fish and bioconcentration factor (BCF) - High concentration level

Exposure period

Fish weight (g)

Peak Area (mAbs.sec)

Conc. In final solution (mg/l)

Conc. In fish body (µg/g)

Mean conc. In water (mg/l)

BCF

Day

No.

1

2

Sample

std

4

1

4.64

8.79

<1500

19910

<0.151

<166

18.8

<9

4

2

6.94

4.84

<1500

19910

<0.151

<166

18.8

<9

7

1

4.70

6.44

<1500

19834

<0.151

<167

19.0

<9

7

2

7.49

7.41

<1500

19834

<0.151

<167

19.0

<9

14

1

6.27

5.61

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.9

<10

14

2

6.82

6.40

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.9

<10

21

1

5.59

6.27

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.7

<10

21

2

8.74

5.87

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.7

<10

28

1

6.44

5.56

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.8

<10

28

2

6.46

6.75

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

18.8

<10

Table 2: Concentration of the test substance in the test fish and bioconcentration factor (BCF) - Low concentration level

Exposure period

Fish weight (g)

Peak Area (mAbs.sec)

Conc. In final solution (mg/l)

Conc. In fish body (µg/g)

Mean conc. In water (mg/l)

BCF

Day

No.

1

2

Sample

std

4

1

9.89

4.26

<1500

19910

<0.151

<166

2.06

<81

4

2

8.16

5.76

<1500

19910

<0.151

<166

2.06

<81

7

1

10.47

5.19

<1500

19834

<0.151

<167

2.01

<83

7

2

9.18

6.50

<1500

19834

<0.151

<167

2.01

<83

14

1

10.66

4.45

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

2.00

<93

14

2

6.00

6.56

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

2.00

<93

21

1

4.47

7.21

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

1.99

<94

21

2

5.84

6.35

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

1.99

<94

28

1

7.55

5.46

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

2.03

<92

28

2

6.40

5.00

<1500

17767

<0.169

<186

2.03

<92

Both the final concentration in water and the concentration in fish body are at approximately the limits of detection of the analytical methods for those media.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Bioconcentration factors of <10 (Concentration level 18.8 mg/l) and <94 (concentration level 2.03 mg/l) were determined in a reliable study conducted according to an appropriate test protocol, and in compliance with GLP.

Description of key information

A reliable study of bioaccumulation of DTPMP-7Na in carp, indicates bioconcentration factors in the exposure phase of <10 (Concentration level 18.8mg/l) and <94 (concentration level 2.03 mg/l).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

This conclusion is based upon a reliable study conducted with DTPMP-7Na according to an appropriate test protocol, and in compliance with GLP.

Discussion of trends in the DTPMP category

On the basis of reliable experimental evidence in fish, DTPMP acid and its salts are not expected to bioaccumulate. Values for direct structural analogues (ATMP, HEDP) are less than 100. QSARs for bioaccumulation are not validated for phosphonates.