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Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
one-generation reproductive toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
12.09. 1977 to 19.06.1978
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1979
Report date:
1979

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 415 [One-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study (before 9 October 2017)]
Version / remarks:
Conducted prior to adoption of OECD test guideline.
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
No analytical confirmation of exposure, no pre-mating exposure, no assessment of oestrus cycle or sperm analyses, no evaluation of sexual milestones in pup. Males treated only as F1 and F2 generation.
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
[[(phosphonomethyl)imino]bis[ethane-2,1-diylnitrilobis(methylene)]]tetrakisphosphonic acid
EC Number:
239-931-4
EC Name:
[[(phosphonomethyl)imino]bis[ethane-2,1-diylnitrilobis(methylene)]]tetrakisphosphonic acid
Cas Number:
15827-60-8
Molecular formula:
C9H28N3O15P5
IUPAC Name:
[(bis{2-[bis(phosphonomethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)methyl]phosphonic acid
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
[[(phosphonomethyl)imino]bis[ethane-2,1-diylnitrilobis(methylene)]]tetraki sphosphonic acid
IUPAC Name:
[[(phosphonomethyl)imino]bis[ethane-2,1-diylnitrilobis(methylene)]]tetraki sphosphonic acid
Test material form:
liquid

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Long-Evans
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Females: Blue Spruce Farms. Males: BioDynamics Inc. in-house Long Evans breeding colony.
- Age at study initiation: (P) x 15-16 wks; (F1) x 3 wks
- Weight at study initiation (means): Females approximately 240 g. Males not weighed.
- Fasting period before study: No
- Housing: Individually in elevated stainless steel cages.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Ad libitum
- Acclimation period: No data


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): No data
- Humidity (%): No data
- Air changes (per hr): No data
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12


IN-LIFE DATES: From: 12.09. 1977 to 19.06.1978

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): Weekly
- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): Purina Laboratory Chow
- Storage temperature of food: No data

Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1:2
- Length of cohabitation: nightly until signs of mating.
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug or sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy.
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged (how): Individually in elevated stainless steel cages.
- Any other deviations from standard protocol: Dosing not started until Day 0 of gestation.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Test substance administration to F0 females was initiated on gestation Day 0 and continued throughout gestation and lactation, and for F1males and females through the F2a and f2b litters.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Details on study schedule:
- F1 parental animals not mated until one week after selection from the F1 litters.
- Selection of parents from F1 generation when pups had reached maturity.
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
300 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
in diet
Dose / conc.:
1 000 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
in diet
Dose / conc.:
3 000 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
in diet
No. of animals per sex per dose:
F0 females: 20.
F1 Parents: females - 20; males - 10.
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: No data
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): Random.
- F1 offspring were separated from siblings seven days after weaning of the last litter and were randomly selected to continue as future parents (f1). More offspring than needed were selected (12 males and 24 females) for the growth period to insure the required number of adults (10 males and 20 females) necessary for mating. Following pup selection, remaining offspring and F0 females were sacrificed and discarded after gross external and internal examinations.
F1 animals were raised to maturity and mated to produce the F2a litters. F2a pups were sacrificed, necropsied and discarded at weaning. All F1 females were remated after a rest period of at least 14 days to produce the F2b litters. F2b pups were sacrificed and necropsied at weaning. Following completion of the F2b sacrifice, all F1 parents were sacrificed, necropsied and selected tissues preserved.
Positive control:
None

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: mortality and gross signs of toxicity in F0 and F1: twice daily.


DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Weekly (F0 and F1)


BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Males and nonpregnant females (F1): weekly in growth and rest periods of F1 generation. Pregnant females (F0 and F1): Days 0, 6, 15 and 20 of gestation. Lactation females (F0 and F1): Days 0, 4, 14 and 21 of lactation.


FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
-Males and nonpregnant females: weekly for growth and rest periods of F1 generation.
-Test substance consumption was calculated from body weight and food consumption values: Males and nonpregnant females: weekly during growth and rest periods of F1 generation.


WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Not examined as dosing in F0 dams started on Day 0 gestation, F0 males not dosed.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in [all/P/F1/F2] male parental generations: No data
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: yes

PARAMETERS EXAMINED:
Gestation period: On day 19 of gestation, dams were provided with nesting material and were examined daily for signs of parturition.
Lactation period (Day 0 is day on which all pups had been delivered): General appearance of pups and presence of dead pups examined daily in all litters (F1, F2a and F2b). Live, dead and missing pups were recorded on Days 0, 1, 4 (pre-cull and post-cull), 14 and 21 of lactation in all litters (F1, F2a and F2b). Live pups were weighed as a litter on Days 0, 4 (pre-cull) and 21 (calculated from individual weights) of lactation for all litters, and individually on Day 21 of lactation for all litters.
Litter Data and Observations: The number of each sex per litter was determined on Days 0 and 4 (pre- and post-cull) of lactation for all litters. Individual sex determination on Day 21 of lactation for all litters.

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
Yes, for external and internal abnormalities.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
F0 generation: All females sacrificed after weaning of F1 offspring, and necropsy performed.
F1 generation: All surviving males and females sacrificed after weaning and necropsy of the last F2b litter. Necropsy performed, and selected organs weighed and tissues preserved.
Extra F1 males and females: sacrifice at initiation of mating, necropsy performed and discarded.
Dead and moribund dams: Necropsy performed. Uterine contents examined and presence of implantation sites and/or scars recorded.

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.


HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated in Table 1 were weighed and/or prepared for microscopic examination.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
- The F1 offspring not selected as parental animals and all F2 offspring were sacrificed after weaning. Necropsy performed including internal sex determination performed, then carcasses discarded.
- F2a: necropsy included internal sex determination performed. All offspring where then discarded.
- F2b: necropsy included internal sex determination performed. Selected tissues were preserved from ten randomly chosen males and females from all groups.
F2b found dead after Day 14 of lactation: necropsy including internal sex determination performed and discarded.
Culled F1, F2a and F2b: sacrifice on Day 4 of lactation. Necropsy including internal sex determination performed and discarded.


GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.
- Dead pups: sex was determined and pups checked for presence of milk in their stomach and discarded.


HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGTHS
The tissues indicated in Table 1 were preserved for F2b offspring.
Statistics:
Body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and litter examination data, organ weights, organ/body weight and organ/brain weight ratios were analysed. Group I and Group II (control groups) were compared to each other. If no statistically significant differences, the control groups were combined and compared against test groups. If controls differed, individual control/test comparisons conducted - continuous and discrete data (body weight, food intake, organ weight): Dunnett's test.  - gestation length: F-test and Student's T-test (Cochran's approximation). - offspring data: Chi-square. Incidence data for control Group II was compared to control Group I and incidence data for each test substance treated group was compared to each control group.
Reproductive indices:
F0 females: Pregnancy rates, gestation length, percentage of mothers that weaned litters.
F1 females: Mating and fertility indices, pregnancy rates, parturition indices, gestation length, percentage of mothers that weaned litters.
Offspring viability indices:
F1 litters: Mean numbers of live and dead pups at birth, pup survival (at representative intervals through lactation), body w eight, sex distribution.
F2 litters: Mean numbers of live and dead pups at birth, pup survival (at representative intervals through lactation), body w eight, sex distribution.

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No parental animals showed clinical signs of toxicity.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No parental animals died during the study.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no effects on body weight/body weight gain.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no effects on food consumption. There are no comments on this, but as food consumption was not affected, test substance intake should also have not been affected.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No treatment effects.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No effects. Pregnancy rates were comparable between the control and treated groups. Mean gestation length was comparable between the control and treated groups. The mean numbers of live and dead pups at birth were considered comparable between the controls and treated Groups III and IV (300 and 1000 ppm, respectively). In Group V (3000 ppm) a decrease in the mean numbers of live pups with a corresponding increase in the mean number of dead pups was observed at birth; however, neither of these values differed statistically from combined control values. The percentage of females that weaned litters was comparable between the control and treated groups.

Effect levels (P0)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 3 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed in P0 animals

Target system / organ toxicity (P0)

Critical effects observed:
no

Results: P1 (second parental generation)

General toxicity (P1)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No treatment effect was indicated in physical observation data.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No mortality was observed in the control or treated groups during the growth, rest, gestation or lactation intervals.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Mean body weight data during the F1 growth and rest periods were comparable between the control and treated groups.
Body weight data during the gestation and lactation intervals for the first litters (F2a) mean weight data were comparable between the control and treated groups.
During the gestation and lactation interval for the second litters (F2b) mean weights were comparable between the control and treated Group III (300 ppm) and slightly lower than the control data in treated Groups IV and V (1000 ppm and 3000 ppm, respectively). These differences were not statistically significant. Mean body weight gain data during these same intervals were considered comparable between control and treated group.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Mean food consumption data were considered comparable between the control and treated groups. No treatment effect on food consumption was observed.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Gross necropsy observations of the F1 generation parents and extras not used for the study revealed no findings considered related to test substance administration.
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Gross postmortem observations and microscopic evaluation of selected tissues from five adult F1 generation males and females of the control (Groups I and II) and high-dose (Group V) groups indicated no findings considered to be related to the administration of the test substance.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed

Reproductive function / performance (P1)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not examined
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not examined
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Mating indices for both F1 males and F1 females were comparable between the control and treated groups during both the first and second mating intervals. Likewise, fertility indices were comparable between these same groups. Pregnancy rates were comparable between the control and treated Groups III and IV (300 and 1000 ppm, respectively) for both mating intervals. In Group V (3000 ppm) a slight decrease in pregnancy rate was observed during the first mating interval; this difference from the control data was not statistically significant. During the mating interval to produce the second litter (F2b), pregnancy rate for Group V was comparable to the control data. Parturition indices were comparable between the control and treated groups for both mating intervals.
Mean gestation length of F1 females was considered comparable between the control and treated groups for both pregnancy intervals. A statistically significant reduction in mean gestation length in Groups IV (1000 ppm) from the pooled control data for the first pregnancy interval (F2a) was considered spurious and not related to treatment.
The mean numbers of live and dead pups at birth were considered comparable between the control and treated groups for both the first and second litters (F2a and F2b, respectively). A slight increase in the mean number of dead pups at birth in Group V (3000-ppm) for the first litters (F2a) was attributed to one Group V female (No. 1008) that had five dead pups.
The percentage of F1 females that weaned litters was comparable between the control and treated groups for both the first and second lactation intervals.

Effect levels (P1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 3 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed in parental F1 (P1) animals

Target system / organ toxicity (P1)

Critical effects observed:
no

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no clinical signs of toxicity.
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The mean numbers of live and dead pups at birth (F1) were considered comparable between the controls and 300 and 1000 ppm groups. In the high dose group there was a decrease in the mean numbers of live pups with a corresponding increase in the mean number of dead pups observed at birth. The differences were not statistically significant compared with the combined control values. The 24-hour and 4-day survival indices for the treated groups were slightly lower than the control values, and some statistically significant differences from a control group were observed. There was no dose-response relationship so it was concluded that the difference were not treatment-related. Pup survival indices for the 14 Day and 21 Day intervals were generally within the range of values observed for the two control groups and no treatment effect was indicated.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Mean pup weights at Days 0, 4, 14, and 21 of lactation were considered comparable between the control and treated Groups III and IV. In Group V (3000 ppm) the mean pup weight at birth was slightly lower than the control; this difference was not statistically significant. Mean pup weight in Group V for the remainig intervals of the lactation period were considered comparable to the control.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Anogenital distance (AGD):
not examined
Nipple retention in male pups:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Necropsy observations of the Fl pups not selected as parents for the next generation revealed no abnormal findings.
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Differences in sex distribution data at birth between the control and treated groups were attributed in normal biological variability and no treatment effect was indicated. Sex distribution ratios at Day 21 of lactation were similar to ratios observed at Day 4 post-cull.

Developmental neurotoxicity (F1)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined

Developmental immunotoxicity (F1)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
>= 3 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed in F1 offsprings

Target system / organ toxicity (F1)

Critical effects observed:
no

Results: F2 generation

General toxicity (F2)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Pup survival indices during the lactation period for both F2a and F2b litters were considered comparable between the control and treated groups.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
In the first litters (F2a) mean pup weight at birth was slightly lower than control values in treated Groups IV and V (1000 and 3000 ppm, respectively). Only in Group V was this difference statistically significant from the pooled control data. Mean pup weight at Days 4, 14 and 21 were considered comparable between the control and treated groups.
In the second litters (F2b) mean pup weights were considered comparable between the control and treated groups throughout lactation.
In the males, mean terminal body weights were slightly lower than the pooled control value in treated Groups IV and V (1000 ppm and 3000 ppm, respectively) and higher than control in Group III (300 ppm). None of these differences were statistically significant. In the females, mean terminal body weights were comparable between the control and treated groups.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Anogenital distance (AGD):
not examined
Nipple retention in male pups:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Sporadic differences from control data were noted for some absolute and relative (to body weight) mean organ weights. These differences were not considered to indicate a test substance-related effect.
Organ to brain weight ratios were considered comparable between the control and treated groups for both males and females. No treatment related effect was indicated.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Gross necropsy observations of F2a and F2b offspring revealed no findings considered related to the administration of the test substance.
Histopathological findings:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Sex distribution ratios for the treated groups both at birth, Day 4 (post-cull) and weaning revealed no treatment effects during either the first (F2a) or second (F2b) litters.

Developmental neurotoxicity (F2)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined

Developmental immunotoxicity (F2)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Effect levels (F2)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F2
Effect level:
>= 3 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed F2a and F2b offspring

Target system / organ toxicity (F2)

Critical effects observed:
no

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
no

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 2 Summary of Gestation length, litter survival, growth of offspring and weaning sex ratio data.

 Group (ppm) Mean gestation period (days)  Mean No.     Mean No. weaned/litter Litters weaned     Mean live offspring weights (g)          Day 21 sex ratio (M/F)
   Live  Dead    No  %  Day 0  Day 4a  Day 14 Day 21   No. Ratiob
                                     F0 to F1
 I/0  22.1  12.3  0.1  9.8  18/18  100  5.9  9.4  27.3  40.8  86/90  0.96
 II/0  22.1  11  0.6  8.9  17/18  94.4  5.9  9.3  27.0  41.5  71/81  0.88
 I+II  22.1  11.6  0.3  9.4      5.9  9.3  27.2  41.1    
 III/300  21.9  11.3  0.8  9.5  17/18  94.4  5.9  9.6  27.9  41.3  81/81 1.00 
 IV/1000  21.9  10.9  0.6  8.7  17/17  100  6.1  9.8  27.3  40.4  65/83  0.78
 V/3000  22.3  9.2  1.9  7.9  17/19  89.5  5.7  8.5  26.6  40.8  64/70 0.91 
                                     F1 to F2a
 I/0  22.4  10.9  0.1  8.7  13/14  92.9  6.3  9.7  26.6  35.4  55/58  0.95
 II/0  22.4  10.5  0.3 9.1   14/15  93.3  6.1  10.1  25.5  35.3  64/63  1.02
 I+II  22.4  10.7  0.2  8.9      6.2  9.9  26.0  35.3    
 III/300  22.3  12.4#  0.1  9.3  17/18  94.4  6.2  9.3  26.0  36.4  83/75  1.11
 IV/1000  22.1#  11.1  0.0  8.8  19/19  100  5.8  9.2  24.8  34.7  84/84  1.00
 V/3000  22.2  11.7  0.8  9.5  13/13  100  5.8#  9.2  25.6  34.6  60/63  0.95
                                     F1 to F2b
 I/0  22.3  12.3  0.1  8.9  14/15  93.3  6.0  8.8  26.1  39.2+  59/66  0.89
 II/0  22.1  9.4  0.9  7.8  15/17  88.2  6.1 9.7   29.5  45.0*  61/56  1.09
 I+II  22.2  10.8  0.6  8.3      6.0  9.3  27.8      
 III/300  22.1  12.5  0.3  9.3  19/19  100  6.1  9.5  27.6  41.3  83/93 0.89 
 IV/1000  22.1  11.4  0.9  9.3  15/17  88.2  5.8  9.0  26.5  39.5 ++  75/73 1.03 
 V/3000  22.2  11.1  0.5  9.2  14/15  93.3  5.9  9.3  27.2  40.1  63/66  0.95

Significantly different from control Group I: *p0.05; **p0.01.

Significantly different from control Group II: +p 0.05; ++p 0.01.

Significantly different from pooled values of control Groups I and II: #p 0.05; ##p 0.01.

a Pre-cull weight only.

b Data not analysed statistically.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In the one-generation reproductive toxicity study, conducted prior to OECD Test Guidelines and GLP, no clear treatment-related or statistically significant
effects were seen in rats following DTPMP-H administration via the diet. Pregnancy rate and pup body weight were lower for F2a litters from dams fed diets containing 3000 ppm DTPMP-H, but this was not replicated in the F1 or F2b litters. The concluded NOAEL for reproductive and systemic toxicity was greater than 3000 ppm (equivalent to 294 mg/kg bw/d for males and 312 mg/kg bw/d in females).