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Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1989
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Shortcoming with the method with only three strains and without use of S-9 activation
However, performed at up to high dose levels of 10 000 µg/plate.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Zirconium Toxicity Assessment Using Bacteria, Algae And Fish Assays
Author:
Couture, P; et al.
Year:
1989
Bibliographic source:
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 47: 87-100

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Zirconium tetrachloride
EC Number:
233-058-2
EC Name:
Zirconium tetrachloride
Cas Number:
10026-11-6
Molecular formula:
Cl4Zr
IUPAC Name:
zirconium tetrachloride

Method

Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 97
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
without
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/L Zr.
Controls
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Evaluation criteria:
Each microplate was scored for positive wells after 72-hr incubation at 37 °C.
Positive responses were shown by a color change from purple to yellow of the pH indicator Bromcresol Purple as a result of cellular growth by His+ revertants.
Statistics:
Chi-square analysis

Results and discussion

Test resultsopen allclose all
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 97
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 100
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 102
Metabolic activation:
without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
other: some cytotoxicity possible at highest concnetrations tested
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid

Any other information on results incl. tables

Mutagenicity in Salmonella sp. strains (TA97, TAI00, and 102) following exposure to ZrCl4 in a Microtitre Fluctuation Test

Zr (mg L -1)

Number of positive wells

pa

TA97

TA100

TA102

0.0

30

31

30

N.S.

0.01

29

20

24

N.S.

0.1

23

21

24

N.S.

1.0

32

34

29

N.S.

10.0

32

35

11b

N.S.

a Not significant (N.S.) at 95% probability level for all strains. Significance was determined by Chi-square analysis

b Lower number of revertants may indicate toxicity towards strain TA102 at 10 mg L ~ Zr.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Zirconium tetrachloride was not mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation study without metabolic activation.
Executive summary:

Zirconium tetrachloride was tested in a bacterial reverse mutation study without metabolic activation at doeses of 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/L  Zr. No mutagenic activity was observed in this study.